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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-1070
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Review article
12 Jan 2018
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Cryosphere: a kingdom of anomalies and diversity
Vladimir Melnikov1,4,5,6, Viktor Gennadinik1, Markku Kulmala1,2, Hanna K. Lappalainen1,2,3, Tuukka Petäjä1,2, and Sergej Zilitinkevich1,2,3 1Tyumen State University, Russia
2Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Dept. of Physics, University of Helsinki, Finland
3Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
4Earth Cryosphere Institute SB RAS, Tyumen, Russia
5Industrial University of Tyumen, Russia
6Tyumen Scientific Center SB RAS, Tyumen, Russia
Abstract. The cryosphere of the Earth overlaps with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere over vast areas with temperatures below zero C and pronounced H2O phase changes. In spite of its strong variability in space and time, the cryosphere plays the role of a global thermostat keeping the thermal regime on the Earth within rather narrow limits affording continuation of the conditions needed for the maintenance of life. Objects and processes related to cryosphere are very diverse due to the following basic reasons: anomalous thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of H2O, intermediate intensity of hydrogen bonds, and very wide spread of cryogenic systems all over the Earth. These features yet attract insufficient attention of research communities. Cryology is usually understood as a descriptive discipline within physical geography basically limited to glaciology and permafrost research. We emphasize its broad interdisciplinary landscape involving physical, chemical and biological phenomena related to the H2O phase transitions and various forms of ice. This paper aims to attract attention of readers to crucial importance of cryogenic anomalies which make the Earth atmosphere and the entire Earth system very specific, if not unique, objects in the universe.

Citation: Melnikov, V., Gennadinik, V., Kulmala, M., Lappalainen, H. K., Petäjä, T., and Zilitinkevich, S.: Cryosphere: a kingdom of anomalies and diversity, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-1070, in review, 2018.
Vladimir Melnikov et al.
Vladimir Melnikov et al.
Vladimir Melnikov et al.

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Short summary
The cryosphere of the Earth overlaps with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere over vast areas with temperatures below zero C and pronounced H2O phase changes. The cryosphere plays the role of a global thermostat. The processes related to cryosphere yet attract insufficient attention of research communities. We call for a attention to crucial importance of cryogenic anomalies which make the Earth atmosphere and the entire Earth system very specific.
The cryosphere of the Earth overlaps with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere over vast...
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