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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-1014
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
27 Nov 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Phenomenology of summer ozone episodes over the Madrid Metropolitan Area, central Spain
Xavier Querol1, Andrés Alastuey1, Gotzon Gangoiti2, Noemí Perez1, Hong K. Lee3, Heeram R. Eun3, Yonghee Park3, Enrique Mantilla4, Miguel Escudero5, Gloria Titos1, Lucio Alonso2, Brice Temime-Roussel6, Nicolas Marchand6, Juan R. Moreta7, M. Arantxa Revuelta7, Pedro Salvador8, Begoña Artíñano8, Saúl García dos Santos9, Mónica Anguas10, Alberto Notario11, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez10, Roy M. Harrison12,a, and Kang-Ho Ahn3 1Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona, 08034 Spain
2Escuela Técnica Superior Ingeniería de Bilbao, Departamento Ingeniería Química y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Urkixo Zumarkalea, S/N, Bilbao, 48013 Spain
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 425-791, Republic of Korea
4Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo, CEAM, Unidad Asociada al CSIC, Parque Tecnológico C/Charles 14 R. Darwin, Paterna, Valencia, 46980 Spain
5Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza, Academia General Militar, Ctra. de Huesca s/n, Zaragoza, 50090 Spain
6Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, LCE, Marseille, France
7Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET, C/Leonardo Prieto Castro, 8, Madrid, 28071 Spain
8Department of Environment, CIEMAT, Joint Research Unit Atmospheric Pollution CIEMAT-CSIC, c/Avenida Complutense 40, Madrid, 28040 Spain
9Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Ctr Majadahoda a Pozuelo km 2, Majadahonda (Madrid), 28222 Spain
10Department of Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate, Institute of Physical Chemistry Rocasolano, CSIC, Madrid, 28006 Spain
11University of Castilla-La Mancha, Physical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemical Science and Technologies, Ciudad Real, Spain
12National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT UK
aalso at: Department of Environmental Sciences/Centre for Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Abstract. Various studies have reported that photochemical nucleation of new ultrafine particles (UFP) in urban environments within high insolation regions occurs simultaneously with high ozone (O3). In this work, we evaluate the atmospheric dynamics leading to summer O3 episodes in the Madrid Air Basin (Central Iberia) by means of measuring a 3D distribution of concentrations for both pollutants. To this end, we obtained vertical profiles (up to 1200 m, above ground level) using tethered balloons and miniaturised instrumentation at a suburban site located to the SW of the Madrid Metropolitan Area (MMA), Majadahonda site (MJDH) in July 2016. Simultaneously, measurements of an extensive number of air quality and meteorological parameters were carried out at 3 supersites across the MMA. Furthermore, data from O3-soundings and daily radio-sounding were also used to interpret the atmospheric dynamics.

The results demonstrate the concatenation of venting and accumulation episodes, with relative O3 lows (venting) and peaks (accumulation) in surface levels. Regardless of the episode type, fumigation of high altitude O3-rich layers contributes the major proportion of surface O3 concentrations. Accumulation episodes are characterised by a relatively thinner planetary boundary layer (PBL < 1500 m at midday, lower in altitude than the orographic features), low synoptic winds and the development of mountain breezes along the slope of the Guadarrama Mountain Range (W and NW of MMA, maximum altitude > 2400 m). This orographic-meteorological setting causes the vertical recirculation of air masses and the enrichment of O3 in the lower tropospheric layers. When the highly polluted urban plume from Madrid is affected by these dynamics, the highest Ox (O3 + NO2) concentrations are recorded in the MMA.

Vertical O3 profiles during venting episodes, with marked synoptic winds and a deepening of the PBL reaching > 2000 m above sea level, were characterised by an upward gradient in O3 levels, whereas low-altitude O3 concentration maxima due to local/regional production were found during the accumulation episodes. The two contributions to O3 surface levels (fumigation from high altitude strata and local/regional production) require very different approaches for policy actions. In contrast to O3 vertical top-down transfer, UFP are formed in the lowest levels and are transferred upwards progressively with the growth of the PBL.


Citation: Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Gangoiti, G., Perez, N., Lee, H. K., Eun, H. R., Park, Y., Mantilla, E., Escudero, M., Titos, G., Alonso, L., Temime-Roussel, B., Marchand, N., Moreta, J. R., Revuelta, M. A., Salvador, P., Artíñano, B., García dos Santos, S., Anguas, M., Notario, A., Saiz-Lopez, A., Harrison, R. M., and Ahn, K.-H.: Phenomenology of summer ozone episodes over the Madrid Metropolitan Area, central Spain, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-1014, in review, 2017.
Xavier Querol et al.
Xavier Querol et al.
Xavier Querol et al.

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Short summary
We are showing in this article what are the main atmospheric drivers of high ozone episodes in and around Madrid. High levels of ultrafine particles are evidenced during these episodes but we demonstrated that most ozone arises from the fumigation of high atmospheric layers, whereas ultrafine particles are generated inside the boundary layer.
We are showing in this article what are the main atmospheric drivers of high ozone episodes in...
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