Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/acp-2017-77
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
31 Jan 2017
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper was accepted for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) and is expected to appear here in due course.
Formation of secondary organic aerosols from gas–phase emissions of heated cooking oils
Tengyu Liu1, Zijun Li2, ManNin Chan2,3, and Chak K. Chan1 1School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
2Earth System Science Programme, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
3The Institute of Environment, Energy and Sustainability, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Abstract. Cooking emissions can potentially contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) but remain poorly understood. In this study, formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils (i.e. corn, canola, sunflower, peanut and olive oils) was investigated in a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber. Experiments were conducted at 19–20 ºC and 65–70 % RH. The characterization instruments included a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS). The efficiency of SOA production, in ascending order, was peanut oil, olive oil, canola oil, corn oil and sunflower oil. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of mono-unsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA, after aging at an OH exposure of 1.7 × 1011 molecules cm−3 s, was 1.35 ± 0.30 µg min−1, three orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from heated cooking oils in previous studies. The mass spectra of cooking SOA highly resemble field-derived COA (cooking-related organic aerosol) in ambient air, with R2 ranging from 0.74 to 0.88, suggesting that COA might not be entirely primary in origin. The average carbon oxidation state (OSc) of SOA was −1.51–−0.81, falling in the range between ambient hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA), indicating that SOA in these experiments was lightly oxidized.

Citation: Liu, T., Li, Z., Chan, M., and Chan, C. K.: Formation of secondary organic aerosols from gas–phase emissions of heated cooking oils, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2017-77, in review, 2017.
Tengyu Liu et al.
Interactive discussionStatus: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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RC1: 'Review', Anonymous Referee #1, 08 Feb 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
AC1: 'Response to Anonymous Referee 1‘s comments', Tengyu Liu, 25 Apr 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
 
RC2: 'Review', Anonymous Referee #2, 28 Mar 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
AC2: 'Response to Anonymous Referee 2‘s comments', Tengyu Liu, 25 Apr 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
Tengyu Liu et al.
Tengyu Liu et al.

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Short summary
Formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils was investigated in a PAM chamber for the first time. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of mono-unsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA was three orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of PM2.5 from heated cooking oils. Our results suggest that field-derived COA might not be entirely primary in origin.
Formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils was investigated in a...
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