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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-510
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
09 Jun 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources
Thilina Jayarathne1, Chelsea E. Stockwell2, Prakash V. Bhave3, Puppala S. Praveen3, Chathurika M. Rathnayake1, Md. Robiul Islam1, Arnico K. Panday3, Sagar Adhikari4, Rasmi Maharjan4, J. Doug Goetz5, Peter F. DeCarlo5,6, Eri Saikawa7, Robert J. Yokelson2, and Elizabeth A. Stone1,8 1University of Iowa, Department of Chemistry, Iowa City, IA, USA
2University of Montana, Department of Chemistry, Missoula, MT, USA
3International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal
4MinErgy Pvt. Ltd, Lalitpur, Nepal
5Drexel University, Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, Philadelphia, PA, USA
6Drexel University, Department of Chemistry, Philadelphia, PA, USA
7Emory University, Department of Environmental Sciences, Atlanta, GA, USA
8University of Iowa, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Iowa City, IA, USA
Abstract. The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and a heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EF; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kg of fuel combusted) were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced draught zig-zag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged 1–19 g kg−1 with major contributions from OC (7 %), sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %), and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle bound water). For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged 8–13 g kg−1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %), sulfate (20.8 %), and ammonium (14.2 %). Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg−1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg−1. Garbage burning emissions contained relatively high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs), triphenylbenzene, and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb), making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud stoves, chimney stoves, and 3-stone cooking fires. The comparisons of different cooking stoves and cooking fires revealed the highest PM emissions from 3-stone cooking fires (7.6–73 g kg−1), followed by traditional mud stoves (5.3–19.7 g kg−1), mud stoves with a chimney for exhaust (3.0–6.8 g kg−1), rocket stoves (1.5–7.2 g kg−1), induced-draught stoves (1.2–5.7 g kg−1), and the bhuse chulo stove (3.2 g kg−1), while biogas had no detectable PM emissions. Idling motorcycle emissions were evaluated before and after routine servicing at a local shop, which decreased EFPM2.5 from 8.8 ± 1.3 g kg−1 to 0.71 ± 0.4 g kg−1 when averaged across five motorcycles. Organic species analysis indicated that this reduction in PM2.5 was largely due to a decrease in emission of motor oil, probably from the crankcase. The EF and chemical emissions profiles developed in this study may be used for source apportionment and to update regional emission inventories.

Citation: Jayarathne, T., Stockwell, C. E., Bhave, P. V., Praveen, P. S., Rathnayake, C. M., Islam, Md. R., Panday, A. K., Adhikari, S., Maharjan, R., Goetz, J. D., DeCarlo, P. F., Saikawa, E., Yokelson, R. J., and Stone, E. A.: Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-510, in review, 2017.
Thilina Jayarathne et al.
Thilina Jayarathne et al.
Thilina Jayarathne et al.

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Short summary
Emissions of fine particulate matter and its constituents were quantified for a variety of under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia: wood and dung cooking fires, generators, groundwater pumps, brick kilns, trash burning, and open burning of biomasses. Garbage burning and 3-stone cooking fires were among the highest emitters, while servicing of motor vehicles significantly reduced PM. These data may be used in source apportionment and to update regional and global emission inventories.
Emissions of fine particulate matter and its constituents were quantified for a variety of...
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