Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/acp-2017-18
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
18 Jan 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Temporal evolution of main ambient PM2.5 sources in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2012
Francisco Barraza1,4, Fabrice Lambert1,4, Héctor Jorquera2,5, Ana María Villalobos2, and Laura Gallardo3,4 1Geography Institute, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile
2Department of chemical engineering and bioprocesses, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile
3Department of Geophysics, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
4Center for Climate and Resilience Research, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
5Center for Sustainable Urban Development (CEDUS), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, 7820436, Chile
Abstract. The inhabitants of Santiago in Chile have been exposed to harmful levels of air pollutants for decades. The city's poor air quality is a result of sustained emissions and stable atmospheric conditions, averse to mixing and ventilation and favorable for the formation of oxidants and secondary aerosols. Identifying and quantifying the sources that contribute to the ambient levels of pollutants is key for designing adequate mitigation measures. Knowledge about the temporal evolution of the contribution of each source to ambient pollution levels is also paramount to evaluate the effectiveness of pollution reduction measures that have been implemented in the past decades. Here, we quantify the main sources that have contributed to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) between 1998 and 2012 in Santiago's center by using two different source-receptor models (PMF 5.0 and Unmix 6.0), that re applied to elemental measurements on 1243 24-hour filter samples of ambient PM2.5 collected between April-1998 to August-2012. Both models resolve six sources that contribute to ambient PM2.5: motor vehicles (37 %), industrial sources (19 %), copper smelters (14 %), wood burning (12 %), coastal sources (10 %), and urban dust (3 %). Our results show that over the 15 years analyzed here, the emissions from motor vehicles, industrial sources, copper smelters, and coastal sources declined by about 21, 39, 81, 59, and 59 % respectively, while wood burning didn’t change and urban dust increase by 72 %. These changes are consistent with emission reduction measures, such as improved vehicle and smelting technology, introduction of low sulfur fuel for vehicles and natural gas for industrial processes, emission controls for vehicles, public transport improvements etc. However, it is also apparent that the mitigation expected from improved public transport, vehicle technology, and fuel has been largely nullified by the ever-rising number of private vehicle journeys in the past decade. As a consequence, Santiago still experiences PM2.5 levels above the annual and 24-hours Chilean and World Health Organization standards.

Citation: Barraza, F., Lambert, F., Jorquera, H., Villalobos, A. M., and Gallardo, L.: Temporal evolution of main ambient PM2.5 sources in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2012, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2017-18, in review, 2017.
Francisco Barraza et al.
Francisco Barraza et al.
Francisco Barraza et al.

Viewed

Total article views: 433 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)

HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
293 101 39 433 10 12 38

Views and downloads (calculated since 18 Jan 2017)

Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 18 Jan 2017)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 433 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)

Thereof 431 with geography defined and 2 with unknown origin.

Country # Views %
  • 1

Saved

Discussed

Latest update: 26 May 2017
Publications Copernicus
Download
Short summary
We quantify the main sources that have contributed to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) between 1998 and 2012 in Santiago's downtown. We calculate the long-term trend as well as abrupt changes in the time-series and put these in relation with particular government policies implemented to improve air quality in specific years. We thus identify which measures successfully reduced individual sources and which sources need measures to avoid episodes when PM2.5 concentrations surpass Chilean standards.
We quantify the main sources that have contributed to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) between...
Share