Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/acp-2016-977
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
15 Dec 2016
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper was accepted for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) and is expected to appear here in due course.
Changing trends and emissions of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and their hydrofluorocarbon replacements
Peter G. Simmonds1, Matthew Rigby1, Archibold McCulloch1, Simon O'Doherty1, Dickon Young1, Jens Mühle2, Paul B. Krummel3, L. Paul Steele3, Paul J. Fraser3, Alistair J. Manning4, Ray F. Weiss2, Peter K. Salameh2, Chris M. Harth2, Ray H. J. Wang5, and Ronald G. Prinn6 1Atmospheric Chemistry Research Group, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK
2Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
3CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Aspendale, Victoria 3195, Australia
4Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK
5School of Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
6Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Abstract. High frequency, in situ global observations of HCFC-22 (CHClF2), HCFC-141b (CH3CCl2F), HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) and HCFC-124 (CHClFCF3) and their main HFC replacements HFC-134a (CH2FCF3), HFC-125 (CHF2CF3), HFC-143a (CH3CF3), and HFC-32 (CH2F2) have been used to determine their changing global growth rates and emissions in response to the Montreal Protocol and its recent amendments. The 2007 adjustment to the Montreal Protocol required the accelerated phase-out of HCFCs with global production and consumption capped in 2013, to mitigate their environmental impact as both ozone depleting substances and important greenhouse gases. We find that this change has coincided with a reduction in global emissions of the four HCFCs with aggregated global emissions in 2015 of 444 ± 75 Gg/yr, in CO2 equivalent units (CO2 e) 0.75 ± 0.1 Gt/yr, compared with 483 ± 70 Gg/yr (0.82 ± 0.1 Gt/yr CO2 e) in 2010. (All quoted uncertainties in this paper are 1 sigma). About 80 % of the total HCFC atmospheric burden in 2015 is HCFC-22, where global HCFC emissions appear to have been relatively constant in spite of the 2013 cap on global production and consumption. We attribute this to a probable increase in production and consumption of HCFC-22 in Montreal Protocol Article 5 (developing) countries and the continuing release of HCFC-22 from the large banks which dominate HCFC global emissions. Conversely, the four HFCs all show increasing annual growth rates with aggregated global HFCs emissions in 2015 of 329 ± 70 Gg/yr (0.65 ± 0.12 Gt/yr CO2 e) compared to 2010 with 240 ± 50 Gg/yr (0.47 ± 0.08 Gt/yr CO2 e). As HCFCs are replaced by HFCs we investigate the impact of the shift to refrigerant blends which have lower global warming potentials (GWPs). We also note that emissions of HFC-125 and HFC-32 appear to have increased more rapidly during the 2011–2015 5-yr period compared to 2006–2010.

Citation: Simmonds, P. G., Rigby, M., McCulloch, A., O'Doherty, S., Young, D., Mühle, J., Krummel, P. B., Steele, L. P., Fraser, P. J., Manning, A. J., Weiss, R. F., Salameh, P. K., Harth, C. M., Wang, R. H. J., and Prinn, R. G.: Changing trends and emissions of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and their hydrofluorocarbon replacements, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-977, in review, 2016.
Peter G. Simmonds et al.
Interactive discussionStatus: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version      Supplement - Supplement
 
RC1: 'Review of Simmonds et al', Anonymous Referee #2, 12 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
AC2: 'Authors response to Referee#2', P. G. Simmonds, 01 Mar 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
 
RC2: 'Review of Simmonds et al', Anonymous Referee #1, 12 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
AC1: 'Authors response to referee#1', P. G. Simmonds, 01 Mar 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
Peter G. Simmonds et al.
Peter G. Simmonds et al.

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Short summary
This paper reports how long-term atmospheric measurements demonstrate that the Montreal Protocol has been effective in controlling production and consumption of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons, a group of industrial chemicals that have detrimental effects on the ozone layer and also contribute to global warming as greenhouse gases and their Hydrofluorocarbon substitutes which are also potent greenhouse gases, but do not materially affect the ozone layer.
This paper reports how long-term atmospheric measurements demonstrate that the Montreal...
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