Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/acp-2016-944
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
07 Nov 2016
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Observations of Atmospheric Chemical Deposition to High Arctic Snow
Katrina M. Macdonald1, Sangeeta Sharma2, Desiree Toom2, Alina Chivulescu2, Sarah Hanna2, Allan Bertram2, Andrew Platt2, Mike Elsasser2, Lin Huang2, Nathan Chellman3, Joseph R. McConnell3, Heiko Bozem4, Daniel Kunkel4, Ying Duan Lei1, Greg J. Evans1, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt5 1Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, M5S 3E5, Canada
2Climate Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, M3H 5T4, Canada
3Desert Research Institute, Reno, 89512, Unites States of America
4Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Becher Weg, 21 55128, Germany
5Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, M5S 3H6, Canada
Abstract. Rapidly rising temperatures and loss of snow and ice cover have demonstrated the unique vulnerability of the high Arctic to climate change. There are major uncertainties in modelling the chemical depositional and scavenging processes of Arctic snow. To that end, fresh snow samples collected on average every four days at Alert, Nunavut, from September 2014 to June 2015 were analyzed for black carbon, major ions, and metals, and their concentrations and fluxes reported. Comparison with simultaneous measurements of atmospheric aerosol mass loadings yields effective deposition velocities which encompass all processes by which the atmospheric species are transferred to the snow. It is inferred from these values that dry deposition is the dominant removal mechanism for several compounds over the winter while wet deposition increased in importance in the fall and spring, probably due to enhanced scavenging by mixed-phase clouds. Black carbon aerosol was the least efficiently deposited species to the snow. These measurements are a unique data set for comparison to models that incorporate deposition to high Arctic snow.

Citation: Macdonald, K. M., Sharma, S., Toom, D., Chivulescu, A., Hanna, S., Bertram, A., Platt, A., Elsasser, M., Huang, L., Chellman, N., McConnell, J. R., Bozem, H., Kunkel, D., Lei, Y. D., Evans, G. J., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Observations of Atmospheric Chemical Deposition to High Arctic Snow, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-944, in review, 2016.
Katrina M. Macdonald et al.
Katrina M. Macdonald et al.
Katrina M. Macdonald et al.

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Short summary
Rapid climate changes within the Arctic have highlighted existing uncertainties in the transport of contaminants to Arctic snow. Fresh snow samples collected frequently through the winter season were analyzed for major constituents creating a unique record of Arctic snow. Comparison with simultaneous atmospheric measurements provides insight into the driving processes in the transfer of contaminants from air to snow. The relative importance of deposition mechanisms over the season is proposed.
Rapid climate changes within the Arctic have highlighted existing uncertainties in the transport...
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