Numerical simulations of windblown dust over complex terrain: The Fiambalá Basin episode in June 2015
Leonardo A. Mingari1,6,7, Estela A. Collini2,6, Arnau Folch3, Walter Báez4, Emilce Bustos4, María Soledad Osores1,5,6, Florencia Reckziegel4, Peter Alexander1,7, and José G. Viramonte41CONICET, Argentina 2Servicio de Hidrografía Naval (SHN), Argentina 3Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Barcelona, España 4INENCO-GEONORTE (UNSa–CONICET), Salta, Argentina 5Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE), Argentina 6Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN), Argentina 7Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires (IFIBA), Argentina
Received: 24 Sep 2016 – Accepted for review: 10 Dec 2016 – Discussion started: 19 Dec 2016
Abstract. On the 13 June 2015, the London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) warned the Buenos Aires VAAC about a possible volcanic eruption from the Nevados Ojos del Salado volcano (6879 m), located in the Andes mountain range on the border between Chile and Argentina. A volcanic ash cloud was detected by the SEVIRI instrument on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites from 14:00 UTC on 13 June. Further studies concluded that the phenomenon was caused by remobilization of ancient pyroclastic deposits (circa 4.5 Ka Cerro Blanco eruption) from the Bolsón de Fiambalá (Fiambalá Basin) in northwestern Argentina.
In this paper, we provide the first comprehensive description of the dust episode through observations and numerical simulations. We have investigated the spatio-temporal distribution of aerosols and the emission process over complex terrain to gain insight into the key role played by the orography and the condition that triggered the long-range transport episode.
Numerical simulations of windblown dust were performed using the WRF-ARW/FALL3D modeling system with meteorological fields downscaled to a spatial resolution of 2 km in order to resolve the complex orography of the area. Results indicated that favourable conditions to generate dust uplifting occurred in northern Fiambalá Basin, where orographic effects caused strong surface winds. According to short-range numerical simulations, dust particles were confined to near-ground layers around the emission areas. On the other hand, dust aerosols were injected up to 5–6 km high in central and southern regions of the Fiambalá Basin, where intense ascending airflows are driven by horizontal convergence.
Long-range transport numerical simulations were also performed to model dust cloud spreading over northern Argentina. Results of simulated vertical particle column mass were compared with the MSG-SEVIRI retrieval product. We tested two numerical schemes: with the default configuration of the FALL3D model, we found difficulties to simulate transport through orographic barriers, whereas an alternative configuration, using a numerical scheme to more accurately compute the horizontal advection in abrupt terrains, substantially improved the model performance.
Mingari, L. A., Collini, E. A., Folch, A., Báez, W., Bustos, E., Osores, M. S., Reckziegel, F., Alexander, P., and Viramonte, J. G.: Numerical simulations of windblown dust over complex terrain: The Fiambalá Basin episode in June 2015, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-851, in review, 2016.