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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/acp-2016-783
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
16 Dec 2016
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
The levels, variation characteristics and sources of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds during wintertime in Beijing, China
Chengtang Liu1,3, Yujing Mu1,2, Junfeng Liu1,3, Chenglong Zhang1,3, Yuanyuan Zhang1,3, Pengfei Liu1,3, and Hongxing Zhang1,4 1Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
2Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China
3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
4Beijing Urban Ecosystem Research Station, Beijing, 100085, China
Abstract. Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) were measured at a sampling site in Beijing city from 15 December 2015 to 14 January 2016 to recognize their pollution levels, variation characteristics and sources. Fifty-three NMHCs were quantified and the proportions of alkanes, alkenes, acetylene and aromatics to the total NMHCs were 49.8 % ~ 55.8 %, 21.5 % ~ 24.7 %, 13.5 % ~ 15.9 % and 9.3 % ~ 10.7 %, respectively. The variation trends of the NMHCs concentrations were basically identical and exhibited remarkable fluctuation, which were mainly ascribed to the variation of meteorological conditions, especially wind speed. The diurnal variations of NMHCs in clear days exhibited two peaks during the morning and evening rush hours, whereas the rush hours' peaks diminished or even disappeared in the haze days, implying that the relative contribution of the vehicular emission to atmospheric NMHCs depended on the pollution status. Two evident peaks of the propane/propene ratios respectively appeared in the early morning before sun rise and at noontime in clear days, whereas only one peak occurred in the afternoon during the haze days, which were attributed to the relatively fast reactions of propene with OH, NO3 and O3. Based on the chemical kinetic equations, the daytime OH concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 3.47 × 105–1.04 × 106 molecules cm−3 in clear days and 6.42 × 105–2.35 × 106 molecules cm−3 in haze days, and the nighttime NO3 concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 2.82 × 109–4.86 × 109 molecules cm−3 in clear days. The correlation coefficients of typical hydrocarbons pairs (benzene/toluene, o-xylene/m,p-xylene, isopentane/n-pentane, etc.) revealed that vehicular emission and coal combustion were important sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime. Five major emission sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime were further identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF), including vehicular emission and gasoline evaporation, coal combustion, solvent usage, acetylene-related emission and consumer and household products. Coal combustion (probably domestic coal combustion) were found to make the greatest contribution (29.4 ~ 33.4 %) to atmospheric NMHCs during haze days.

Citation: Liu, C., Mu, Y., Liu, J., Zhang, C., Zhang, Y., Liu, P., and Zhang, H.: The levels, variation characteristics and sources of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds during wintertime in Beijing, China, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-783, in review, 2016.
Chengtang Liu et al.
Chengtang Liu et al.
Chengtang Liu et al.

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Short summary
NMHCs were measured during wintertime in Beijing to recognize their pollution levels, variation characteristics and sources. The difference of the diurnal variations of NMHCs between clear days and haze days indicated that the relative contribution of the vehicular emissions to NMHCs depended on the pollution status. Both the correlation coefficients of hydrocarbons pairs and PMF analysis revealed that coal combustion was an important source for atmospheric NMHCs, especially in haze days.
NMHCs were measured during wintertime in Beijing to recognize their pollution levels, variation...
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