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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
17 Jun 2016
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Pre-monsoon air quality over Lumbini, a world heritage site along the Himalayan foothills
Dipesh Rupakheti1,2, Bhupesh Adhikary3, Puppala S. Praveen3, Maheswar Rupakheti4,5, Shichang Kang6,7, Khadak S. Mahata4, Manish Naja8, Qianggong Zhang1,7, Arnico K. Panday3, and Mark G. Lawrence4 1Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu, Nepal
4Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam 14467, Germany
5Himalayan Sustainability Institute (HIMSI), Kathmandu, Nepal
6State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (CAREERI), Lanzhou 730000, China
7Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China
8Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Nainital, India
Abstract. Lumbini, in southern Nepal, is a UNESCO world heritage site of universal value as the birthplace of Buddha. Poor air quality in Lumbini and surrounding regions is a great concern for public health as well as for preservation, protection and promotion of Buddhist heritage and culture. We present here results from measurements of ambient concentrations of key air pollutants (PM, BC, CO, O3) in Lumbini, first of its kind for Lumbini, conducted during an intensive measurement period of three months (April–June 2013) in the pre-monsoon season. The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign; SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley – Atmospheric Brown Clouds). The ranges of hourly average concentrations were: PM10: 10.5–604.0 µg m−3, PM2.5: 6.1–272.2 µg m−3; BC: 0.3–30.0 µg m−3; CO: 125.0–1430.0 ppbv; and O3: 1.0–118.1 ppbv. These levels are comparable to other very heavily polluted sites throughout South Asia. The 24-h average PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations exceeded the WHO guideline very frequently (94 % and 85 % of the sampled period, respectively), which implies significant health risks for the residents and visitors in the region. These air pollutants exhibited clear diurnal cycles with high values in the morning and evening. During the study period, the worst air pollution episodes were mainly due to agro-residue burning and regional forest fires combined with meteorological conditions conducive of pollution transport to Lumbini. Fossil fuel combustion also contributed significantly, accounting for more than half of the ambient BC concentration according to aerosol spectral light absorption coefficients obtained in Lumbini. WRF-STEM, a regional chemical transport model, was used to simulate the meteorology and the concentrations of pollutants. The model was able to reproduce the variation in the pollutant concentrations well; however, estimated values were 1.5 to 5 times lower than the observed concentrations for CO and PM10 respectively. Regionally tagged CO tracers showed the majority of CO came from the upwind region of Ganges valley. The model was also used to examine the chemical composition of the aerosol mixture, indicating that organic carbon was the main constituent of fine mode PM2.5, followed by mineral dust. Given the high pollution level, there is a clear and urgent need for setting up a network of long-term air quality monitoring stations in the greater Lumbini region.

Citation: Rupakheti, D., Adhikary, B., Praveen, P. S., Rupakheti, M., Kang, S., Mahata, K. S., Naja, M., Zhang, Q., Panday, A. K., and Lawrence, M. G.: Pre-monsoon air quality over Lumbini, a world heritage site along the Himalayan foothills, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,, in review, 2016.
Dipesh Rupakheti et al.
Dipesh Rupakheti et al.
Dipesh Rupakheti et al.


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Short summary
For the first time, atmospheric composition was monitored during pre-monsoon 2013 at Lumbini (UNESCO world heritage site as the birthplace of Buddha). Particulate matter and ozone frequently exceeded WHO guidelines. Roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and forest fires to the air quality over Lumbini were investigated. Potential source regions were also identified. Results show that air pollution at this site is of a great concern, requiring prompt attention for mitigation.
For the first time, atmospheric composition was monitored during pre-monsoon 2013 at Lumbini...