Mobile and stationary sources of air pollutants in the Amazon rainforest: a numerical study with WRF-Chem model
Sameh A. Abou Rafee1, Leila D. Martins1, Ana B. Kawashima1, Daniela S. Almeida1, Marcos V. B. Morais1, Rita V. A. Souza2, Maria B. L. Oliveira2, Rodrigo A. F. Souza2, Adan S. S. Medeiros2, Viviana Urbina3, Edmilson D. Freitas3, Scot T. Martin4, and Jorge A. Martins11Federal University of Technology – Parana, Londrina, Brazil 2Amazonas State University – Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil 3Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil 4Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Received: 31 Dec 2016 – Accepted: 02 Jan 2017 – Published: 10 Jan 2017
Abstract. This paper evaluates the impact of the emissions from mobile and stationary sources in the Amazon rainforest by using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. The analyzed air pollutants were CO, NOx, SO2, O3, PM2.5, PM10 and VOCs. Five scenarios were defined in order to evaluate the emissions by biogenic, mobile and stationary sources, as well as future scenarios. Results show that the stationary sources explain the highest concentrations for all air pollutants evaluated, except for CO, for which the mobile sources are predominant ones. The futuristic scenario, which is twice the current emissions from mobile and stationary sources, has shown an increase in the range of 3 to 62 % in average concentrations and 45 to 109 % in peak concentrations depending on the pollutant. In addition, the spatial distributions of the scenarios has shown that the air pollutions plume from the city of Manaus is predominantly west and southwest, and it can reach hundreds of kilometers in length.
Abou Rafee, S. A., Martins, L. D., Kawashima, A. B., Almeida, D. S., Morais, M. V. B., Souza, R. V. A., Oliveira, M. B. L., Souza, R. A. F., Medeiros, A. S. S., Urbina, V., Freitas, E. D., Martin, S. T., and Martins, J. A.: Mobile and stationary sources of air pollutants in the Amazon rainforest: a numerical study with WRF-Chem model, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-1190, in review, 2017.