Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/acp-2016-1147
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
20 Feb 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Modelling the radiative effects of smoke aerosols on carbon fluxes in Amazon
Demerval S. Moreira1,2, Karla M. Longo3,a, Saulo R. Freitas3,a, Marcia A. Yamasoe4, Lina M. Mercado5,6, Nilton E. Rosário7, Emauel Gloor8, Rosane S. M. Viana9, John B. Miller10, Luciana V. Gatti11,12, Kenia T. Wiedemann13, Lucas K. G. Domingues11,12, and Caio C. S. Correia11,12 1Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Faculdade de Ciências, Bauru, SP, Brazil
2Centro de Meteorologia de Bauru (IPMet), Bauru, SP, Brazil
3Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil
4Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas do Institudo de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil
5Geography, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
6Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Wallingford, UK
7Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Campus Diadema, Diadema, SP, Brasil
8School of Geography, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, UK
9Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV), Viçosa, MG, Brazil
10Global Monitoring Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA
11Centro de Ciências do Sistema Terrestre, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil
12Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) – Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), São Paulo, Brazil
13Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
anow at: Universities Space Research Association/Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research (USRA/GESTAR) at Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
Abstract. Every year, a dense smoke haze of regional dimensions covers a large portion of South America originated from fire activities in the Amazon Basin and Central parts of Brazil during the dry/biomass-burning season between August and October. Over a large portion of South America, the average aerosol optical depth at 550 nm exceeds 1.0 during the fire season while the background value during the rainy season is below 0.2. Smoke aerosol particles increase scattering and absorption of the incident solar radiation. The regional-scale aerosol layer reduces the amount of solar energy reaching the surface, cools the near surface air, and increases the diffuse radiation fraction over a large disturbed area of the Amazon rainforest. These factors affect the energy and CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, we applied a fully integrated atmospheric model to assess the impact of smoke aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region during 2010. We address the effects of the attenuation of the solar global radiation and the enhancement of the diffuse solar radiation flux inside the canopy. Our results indicated that the smoke aerosols led to an increase of about 22 % of the gross primary productivity of Amazonia, 9 % of plant respiration and a decline in soil respiration from of 3 %. Consequently, Amazonia net ecosystem exchange during September 2010 dropped from +101 to −104 TgC when the aerosol effects were considered, mainly due to the aerosol diffuse radiation effect. For the forest biome, our results pointed to a dominance of the diffuse radiation effect on CO2 fluxes, reaching a balance of 50 % – 50 % between the diffuse and direct aerosol effects for high aerosol loads. For C3 grass type and cerrado, as expected, the contribution of the diffuse radiation effect is much lower, tending to zero with the increase of aerosol load. That is, the Amazon during the dry season, in the presence of high smoke aerosol loads, change from being a source to be a sink of CO2 to the atmosphere.

Citation: Moreira, D. S., Longo, K. M., Freitas, S. R., Yamasoe, M. A., Mercado, L. M., Rosário, N. E., Gloor, E., Viana, R. S. M., Miller, J. B., Gatti, L. V., Wiedemann, K. T., Domingues, L. K. G., and Correia, C. C. S.: Modelling the radiative effects of smoke aerosols on carbon fluxes in Amazon, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-1147, in review, 2017.
Demerval S. Moreira et al.
Demerval S. Moreira et al.
Demerval S. Moreira et al.

Viewed

Total article views: 280 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)

HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
207 46 27 280 10 26

Views and downloads (calculated since 20 Feb 2017)

Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 20 Feb 2017)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 280 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)

Thereof 277 with geography defined and 3 with unknown origin.

Country # Views %
  • 1

Saved

Discussed

Latest update: 27 Apr 2017
Publications Copernicus
Download
Short summary
Fire in the Amazon forest produces loads of smoke to the atmosphere that covers a large portion of South America for about 3 months each year. The smoke affects the energy and CO2 budgets. Using a numerical atmospheric model, we demonstrated that the smoke changes the forest from being a source to be a sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. It is as if the smoke ultimately acts to at least partially compensates for the forest carbon lost due to fire emissions.
Fire in the Amazon forest produces loads of smoke to the atmosphere that covers a large portion...
Share