Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/acp-2016-1114
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
03 Jan 2017
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper is under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Regional Contributions to Particulate Matter Concentration in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: Seasonal Variation and Sensitivity to Meteorology and Emissions Inventory
Eunhye Kim1, Changhan Bae1, Hyun Cheol Kim2,3, Jeong Hoon Cho4, Byeong-Uk Kim5, and Soontae Kim1 1Department of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon, 16499, Korea
2Air Resources Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, College Park, MD, 20740, USA
3Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20740, USA
4Environmental Meteorology Research Division, National Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Jeju, 63568, Korea
5Georgia Environmental Protection Division, Atlanta, GA, 30354, USA
Abstract. The impact of regional emissions (e.g., domestic and international) on surface particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), South Korea and its sensitivities to meteorology and emissions inventories are quantitatively estimated for 2014 using regional air quality modeling systems. Located on the downwind side of strong sources of anthropogenic emissions, South Korea bears the full impact of the regional transport of pollutants and their precursors. However, the impact of foreign emission sources have not yet been fully documented. We utilized two regional air quality simulation systems: (1) a Weather Research and Forecasting and Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system; and (2) a United Kingdom Met Office Unified Model and CMAQ system. The following combinations of emission inventories are used: the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B, Inter-comparison Study for Asia 2010, and the National Institute of Environment Research Clean Air Policy Support System. Partial contributions of domestic and foreign emissions are estimated using a brute force approach, adjusting South Korean emissions to 50 %. Results show that foreign emissions contributed ~ 65 % of SMA surface PM concentration in 2014. Estimated contributions display clear seasonal variation, with foreign emissions having a higher impact during the cold season (Fall to Spring), reaching ~ 80 % in March, and making lower contributions in the summer, ~ 40 % in July. We also found that simulated surface PM concentration is sensitive to meteorology, but estimated contributions are mostly robust. Regional contributions are also found to be sensitive to the choice of emissions inventories.

Citation: Kim, E., Bae, C., Kim, H. C., Cho, J. H., Kim, B.-U., and Kim, S.: Regional Contributions to Particulate Matter Concentration in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: Seasonal Variation and Sensitivity to Meteorology and Emissions Inventory, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-1114, in review, 2017.
Eunhye Kim et al.
Eunhye Kim et al.
Eunhye Kim et al.

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Short summary
This study is intended to provide reference information regarding quantitative estimation of regional contributions and model uncertainty in meteorology simulations and emissions inventories. Simulated PM concentration is sensitive to meteorology, but estimated contributions are mostly robust. Regional contributions are also found to be sensitive to the choice of emissions inventories. The modeled results should be considered with caution when interpreted for emission regulation policy-making.
This study is intended to provide reference information regarding quantitative estimation of...
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