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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/acp-2016-1098
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
07 Dec 2016
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper was accepted for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) and is expected to appear here in due course.
Ice nucleating particles over the Eastern Mediterranean measured by unmanned aircraft systems
Jann Schrod1, Daniel Weber1, Jaqueline Drücke1, Christos Keleshis2, Micheal Pikridas2, Martin Ebert3, Bojan Cvetkovic4, Slobodan Nickovic4, Eleni Marinou5,6, Holger Baars7, Mihalis Vrekoussis2,8,9, Nikos Mihalopulos2,10, Jean Sciare2, Joachim Curtius1, and Heinz G. Bingemer1 1Institute for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Goethe University Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
2Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, 2121 Aglantzia, Cyprus
3Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
4Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
5Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Athens, Greece
6Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
7Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
8Institute of Environmental Physics and Remote Sensing - IUP, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
9Center of Marine Environmental Sciences - MARUM, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
10Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Athens, Greece
Abstract. During an intensive field campaign on aerosol, clouds and ice nucleation in the Eastern Mediterranean in April 2016, we have measured the abundance of ice nucleating particles (INP) in the lower troposphere from unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Aerosol samples were collected by miniaturized electrostatic precipitators onboard the UAS at altitudes up to 2.5 km. The number of INP in these samples, which are active in the deposition and condensation modes at temperatures from −20 to −30 °C, were analyzed immediately after collection on site using the ice nucleus counter FRIDGE. During the one month campaign we encountered a series of Saharan dust plumes that traveled at several kilometers altitude. Here we present INP data from 42 individual flights, together with aerosol number concentrations, observations of lidar backscattering, dust concentrations derived by the dust transport model DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model), and results from scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the dust plumes is reflected by the coincidence of INP with the particulate mass (PM), the lidar signal and with the predicted dust mass of the model. This suggests that mineral dust or a constituent related to dust was a major contributor to the ice nucleating properties of the aerosol. Peak concentrations of above 100 INP std. l−1 were measured at −30 °C. The INP concentration in elevated plumes was on average a factor of 10 higher than at ground level. Since desert dust is transported for long distances over wide areas of the globe predominantly at several km altitude we conclude that INP measurements at ground level may be of limited significance for the situation at the level of cloud formation.

Citation: Schrod, J., Weber, D., Drücke, J., Keleshis, C., Pikridas, M., Ebert, M., Cvetkovic, B., Nickovic, S., Marinou, E., Baars, H., Vrekoussis, M., Mihalopulos, N., Sciare, J., Curtius, J., and Bingemer, H. G.: Ice nucleating particles over the Eastern Mediterranean measured by unmanned aircraft systems, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-1098, in review, 2016.
Jann Schrod et al.
Interactive discussionStatus: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version      Supplement - Supplement
 
RC1: 'Review of Schrod et al. 2016', Anonymous Referee #1, 11 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
AC1: 'Author's response to the review of anonymous referee#1', J. Schrod, 28 Feb 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
 
RC2: 'comments', Anonymous Referee #2, 20 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
AC2: 'Author's response to the review of anonymous referee#2', J. Schrod, 28 Feb 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
Jann Schrod et al.
Jann Schrod et al.

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Short summary
In this manuscript we present data of ice nucleating particles (INP) from a 1-month campaign in the Eastern Mediterranean using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS, drones) and offline sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first time INP were measured onboard an UAS. We find that INP concentrations were 1 magnitude higher aloft than at ground, highlighting that surface-based measurement of INP may only be of limited significance for the situation at cloud level.
In this manuscript we present data of ice nucleating particles (INP) from a 1-month campaign in...
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