Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/acp-2016-1058
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
02 Jan 2017
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper was accepted for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) and is expected to appear here in due course.
Wintertime aerosol chemistry and haze evolution in an extremely polluted city of North China Plain: significant contribution from coal and biomass combustions
Haiyan Li1,2, Qi Zhang2, Qiang Zhang3,4, Chunrong Chen3, Litao Wang5, Zhe Wei5, Shan Zhou2, Caroline Parworth2, Bo Zheng1, Francesco Canonaco6, André S. H. Prévôt6, Ping Chen7, Hongliang Zhang7, and Kebin He1,4,8 1State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
3Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
4Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality, Beijing 100084, China
5Department of Environmental Engineering, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, Hebei 056038, China
6Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 PSI Villigen, Switzerland
7Handix LLC, Boulder, CO 8031, USA
8State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Abstract. The North China Plain (NCP) frequently encountered heavy haze pollution in recent years, particularly during wintertime. In 2015–2016 winter, the NCP region suffered several extremely severe haze episodes with air pollution red alerts issued in many cities. In this work, we investigated the sources and aerosol evolution processes of the severe pollution episodes in Handan, a typical industrialized city in the NCP region, using real-time measurements from an intensive field campaign during the winter of 2015–2016. The average (± 1σ) concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1) during December 3, 2015–February 5, 2016 was 187.6 (± 137.5) μg m−3, with the hourly maximum reaching 700.8 μg m−3. Organic was the most abundant component, on average accounting for 45 % of total PM1 mass, followed by sulfate (15 %), nitrate (14 %), ammonium (12 %), chloride (9 %) and BC (5 %). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) with multi-linear engine (ME-2) identified four major organic aerosol (OA) sources, including traffic emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 7 % of total OA), industrial and residential burning of coal represented by a coal combustion OA (CCOA, 29 % of total OA), open and domestic combustion of wood and crop residuals represented by a biomass burning OA (BBOA, 25 % of total OA), and formation of secondary OA (SOA) in the atmosphere represented by an oxygenated OA (OOA, 39 % of total OA). Emissions of primary OA (POA), which together accounted for 61 % of total OA and 27 % of PM1, are a major cause of air pollution in this region during the winter. Our analysis further uncovered that, primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning together with secondary formation of sulfate (mainly from SO2 emitted by coal combustion) are important driving factors for haze evolution. However, the bulk composition of PM1 showed comparatively small variations between less polluted periods (daily PM2.5 ≤ 75 μg m−3) and severely polluted periods (daily PM2.5 > 75 μg m−3), indicating relatively synchronous increases of all aerosol species during haze formation. The case study of a severe haze episode, which lasted 8 days starting with a steady build-up of aerosol pollution followed by a persistently high level of PM1 (326.7–700.8 μg m−3), revealed the significant influences of stagnant meteorological conditions on acerbating air pollution problems in the Handan region. The haze episode ended with a shift of wind which brought in cleaner air masses from the northwest of Handan and gradually reduced PM1 concentration to < 50 μg m−3 after 12 hours. Furthermore, aqueous-phase reactions under higher relative humidity (RH) were found to significantly promote the production of secondary inorganic species (especially sulfate), but showed little influence on SOA.

Citation: Li, H., Zhang, Q., Zhang, Q., Chen, C., Wang, L., Wei, Z., Zhou, S., Parworth, C., Zheng, B., Canonaco, F., Prévôt, A. S. H., Chen, P., Zhang, H., and He, K.: Wintertime aerosol chemistry and haze evolution in an extremely polluted city of North China Plain: significant contribution from coal and biomass combustions, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-1058, in review, 2017.
Haiyan Li et al.
Interactive discussionStatus: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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RC1: 'Comments on Li et al. (2017)', Anonymous Referee #2, 28 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
 
RC2: 'Comment on Li et al.', Anonymous Referee #1, 29 Jan 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
 
AC1: 'Response to reviewer comments', HAIYAN LI, 07 Mar 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
Haiyan Li et al.
Haiyan Li et al.

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Short summary
The sources and aerosol evolution processes of the severe pollution episodes were investigated in Handan during wintertime using real-time measurements. An in-depth analysis of the data uncovered that primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning together with secondary formation of sulfate (mainly from SO2 emitted by coal combustion) are important driving factors for haze evolution. Our findings provide useful insights into air pollution control in the heavily polluted regions.
The sources and aerosol evolution processes of the severe pollution episodes were investigated...
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