Near-road sampling of PM2.5, BC, and fine particle chemical components in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
Kabindra M. Shakya1,a, Maheswar Rupakheti2, Anima Shahi3, Rejina Maskey3, Bidya Pradhan4, Arnico Panday4, Siva P. Puppala4, Mark Lawrence2, and Richard E. Peltier11Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA 2Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam, Germany 3Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal 4International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal anow at: Department of Geography and the Environment, Villanova University, Pennsylvania, USA
Received: 17 Nov 2016 – Accepted for review: 12 Dec 2016 – Discussion started: 19 Dec 2016
Abstract. Semi continuous PM2.5 and BC concentrations, and 24-hour integrated PM2.5 filter samples were collected near roadways in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Instruments were carried by a group of volunteer traffic police officers in the vicinity of six major roadway intersections in the Kathmandu Valley across two sampling periods in 2014. Daily PM2.5 filter samples were analyzed for water soluble inorganic ions, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), and 24 elements. Mean PM2.5 and BC concentrations were 124.76 μg m−3 and 16.74 μgC m−3 during the drier spring sampling period, and 45.92 μg m−3 and 13.46 μgC m−3 during monsoonal sampling. Despite the lower monsoonal PM2.5 concentrations, BC and several elements were not significantly lower during the monsoon, which indicates an important contribution of vehicle-related emissions throughout both seasons in this region. During the monsoon, there was an enhanced contribution of chemical species (elements and water soluble inorganic ions) except secondary inorganic ions, and BC to PM2.5 (crustal elements: 19 %; heavy metals: 5 %; BC: 39 %) compared to those in spring (crustal elements: 9 %; heavy metals: 1 %; BC: 18 %). Silica, calcium, aluminum, and iron were the most abundant elements during both spring and the monsoon, with the total concentrations of 12.13 and 8.85 μg m−3, respectively. PM2.5 and BC showed less spatial variation compared to that for individual chemical species.
Shakya, K. M., Rupakheti, M., Shahi, A., Maskey, R., Pradhan, B., Panday, A., Puppala, S. P., Lawrence, M., and Peltier, R. E.: Near-road sampling of PM2.5, BC, and fine particle chemical components in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-1027, in review, 2016.