New particle formation from the oxidation of direct emissions of pine seedlings
1Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio 70211, Finland
2Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, Kuopio 70211, Finland
3Department of Physics, P.O. Box 68, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
4Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA, 08121-3976, USA
5Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki 00101, Finland
Abstract. Measurements of particle formation following the gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings are reported. Particle nucleation and condensational growth both from ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radical (OH) initiated oxidation of pine emissions (about 20–120 ppb) were investigated in a~smog chamber. During experiments, tetramethylethylene (TME) and 2-butanol were added to control the concentrations of O3 and OH. Particle nucleation and condensational growth rates were interpreted with a chemical kinetics model. Scots pine emissions mainly included α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ3-carene, limonene, myrcene, β-phellandrene and isoprene, composing more than 95% of total emissions. Modeled OH concentration in the O3+OH induced experiments was at a level of ~106 molecular cm−3. Our results demonstrate that OH-initiated oxidation of VOCs plays an important role in the nucleation process during the initial new particle formation stage. The highest average nucleation rate of 360 cm−3 s−1 was observed for the OH-dominated nucleation events and the lowest aerosol mean formation rate less than 0.5 cm−3 s−1 for the case with only O3 present as an oxidant. On the other hand, ozonolysis of monoterpenes appears to be much more efficient to the aerosol growth process following nucleation. Higher contributions of more oxygenated products to the SOA mass loadings from OH-dominating oxidation systems were found as compared to the ozonolysis systems. Comparison of mass and volume distributions from the aerosol mass spectrometer and differential mobility analyzer yields estimated effective density of these SOA to be 1.34±0.06 g cm−3 with the OH plus O3 initiated oxidation systems and 1.38±0.03 g cm−3 with the ozonolysis dominated chemistry.