Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9, 18839-18865, 2009
www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/9/18839/2009/
doi:10.5194/acpd-9-18839-2009
© Author(s) 2009. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Review Status
This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP.
Uncertainties in wind speed dependent CO2 transfer velocities due to airflow distortion at anemometer sites on ships
F. Griessbaum1,2,*, B. I. Moat3, Y. Narita1, M. J. Yelland3, O. Klemm2, and M. Uematsu1
1Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
2Institute for Landscape Ecology – Climatology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany
3National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK
*Invited contribution by F. Griessbaum, recipient of the EGU Young Scientists Outstanding Poster Paper Award 2008.

Abstract. Data from research vessels and merchant ships are used to estimate ocean CO2 uptake via parameterizations of the gas transfer velocity (k) and measurements of the difference between the concentration of CO2 in the ocean (pCO2sw) and atmosphere (pCO2atm) and of wind speed. Gas transfer velocities estimated using wind speed dependent parameterisations may be in error due to air flow distortion by the ship's hull and superstructure introducing biases into the measured wind speed. The effect of airflow distortion on estimates of the transfer velocity was examined by modelling the airflow around the three-dimensional geometries of the research vessels Hakuho Maru and Mirai, using the Large Eddy Simulation code GERRIS. For airflows within ±45° of the bow the maximum bias was +16%. For wind speed of 10 m s−1 to 15 m s−1, a +16% bias in wind speed would cause an overestimate in the calculated value of k of 30% to 50%, depending on which k parameterisation is used. This is due to the propagation of errors when using quadratic or cubic parameterizations. Recommendations for suitable anemometer locations on research vessels are given. The errors in transfer velocity may be much larger for typical merchant ships, as the anemometers are generally not as well-exposed as those on research vessels.

Flow distortion may also introduce biases in the wind speed dependent k parameterizations themselves, since these are obtained by relating measurements of the CO2 flux to measurements of the wind speed and the CO2 concentration difference. To investigate this, flow distortion effects were estimated for three different platforms from which wind speed dependent parameterizations are published. The estimates ranged from –4% to +14% and showed that flow distortion may have a significant impact on wind speed dependent parameterizations. However, the wind biases are not large enough to explain the differences at high wind speeds in parameterizations which are based on eddy covariance and deliberate tracer methods.


Citation: Griessbaum, F., Moat, B. I., Narita, Y., Yelland, M. J., Klemm, O., and Uematsu, M.: Uncertainties in wind speed dependent CO2 transfer velocities due to airflow distortion at anemometer sites on ships, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9, 18839-18865, doi:10.5194/acpd-9-18839-2009, 2009.
 
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