Consistent simulation of bromine chemistry from the marine boundary layer to the stratosphere, Part I: model description, sea salt aerosols and pH
1Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany
2Institute for Atmospheric Physics, University of Mainz, Germany
3Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA-IPSL, Saclay, France
4Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, UK
5Joint Research Centre, Institute of Environment and Sustainability, Ispra, Italy
Abstract. This is the first article of a series presenting a detailed analysis of bromine chemistry simulated with the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy. Release from sea salt is an important bromine source, hence the model explicitly calculates aerosol chemistry and phase partitioning for coarse mode aerosol particles. Many processes including chemical reaction rates are influenced by the particle size distribution, and aerosol associated water strongly affects the aerosol pH. Knowledge of the aerosol pH is important as it determines the aerosol chemistry, e.g., the efficiency of sulphur oxidation and bromine release. Here, we focus on the simulated sea salt aerosol size distribution and the coarse mode aerosol pH.
A comparison with available field data shows that the simulated aerosol distributions agree reasonably well within the range of measurements. In spite of the small number of aerosol pH measurements and the uncertainty in its experimental determination, the simulated aerosol pH compares well with the observations. The aerosol pH ranges from alkaline aerosol in areas of strong production down to pH values of 1 over regions of medium sea salt production and high levels of gas phase acids, mostly polluted regions over the oceans in the northern hemisphere.