Long term precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in a remote dry savanna site in Africa (Niger)
1Laboratoire d'Aérologie 14, Av. Edouard Belin 31 400 Toulouse, France
2Université Abdou Moumouni, Faculté des Sciences, Département de Physique, BP 10662, Niamey, Niger
3Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) Niger, Laboratoire d'étude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (UMR 5564), France
4European Commission – Joint research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability Global Environment Monitoring Unit, TP 440, via E. Fermi, 21020 Ispra (VA), Italy
Abstract. A long-term measurement of precipitation chemistry has been carried-out in a rural area of Banizoumbou, in the Sahel (Niger), representative of the african semi-arid savanna ecosystem. A total of 305 rainfall samples, representing 90% of the total annual rainfall, were collected with an automatic wet-only rain sampler from June 1994 to September 2005. Using ionic chromatography, pH major inorganic and organic ions were analyzed. Rainwater chemistry at the site is controlled by soil dust emissions associated to a strong terrigeneous contribution represented by SO42–, Ca2+, Carbonates, K+ and Mg2+. Calcium and carbonates represent about 40% of the total ionic charge of precipitation. The second highest contribution is nitrogenous, with annual Volume Weighed Mean (VWM) NO3– and NH4+, concentrations of 11.6 and 18.1 μeq.l−1, respectively. This is thesignature of ammonia sources related to animals and NOx emissions from savannas soils rain-induced, at the beginning of the rainy season. The mean annual NH3 and NO2 air concentration are of 6 ppbv and 2.6 ppbv, respectively. The annual VWM precipitation concentration of sodium and chloride are both of 8.7 μeq.l−1 and reflects the marine signature from the monsoon humid air masses coming from the ocean. The mean pH value, calculated from the VWM of H+, is 5.64. Acidity is neutralized by mineral dust, mainly carbonates, and/or dissolved gases such NH3. High level of organic acidity with 8 μeq.l−1 and 5.2 μeq.l−1 of formate and acetate were found, respectively. The analysis of monthly Black Carbon emissions and FAPAR values show that both biogenic emission from vegetation and biomass burning sources could explain the organic acidity content of the precipitation. The interannual variability of the VWM concentrations around the mean (1994–2005) presents fluctuations between ±5% and ±30% mainly attributed to the variations of sources strength associated with rainfall spatio-temporal distribution. From 1994 to 2005, the total mean wet deposition flux in the Sahelian region is 60.1 mmol.m−2.yr−1 and fluctuates around ±25%. Finally, Banizoumbou measurements, are compared to other long-term measurements of precipitation chemistry in the wet savanna of Lamto (Côte d'Ivoire) and in the forested zone of Zoétélé (Cameroon). The total chemical loadings presents a strong negative gradient from the dry savanna to the forest (143.7, 100.2 to 86.6 μeq.l–1), associated with the gradient of terrigeneous compounds sources. The wet deposition fluxes present an opposite gradient, with 60.0 mmol.m−2.yr−1 in Banizoumbou, 108.6 mmol.m−2.yr–1 in Lamto and 162.9 mmol.m−2.yr−1 in Zoétélé, controlled by the rainfall gradient along the ecosystems transect.