Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 8, 17739-17762, 2008
© Author(s) 2008. This work is distributed
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This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP.
Severe ozone air pollution in the Persian Gulf region
J. Lelieveld1,2, P. Hoor2, P. Jöckel1, A. Pozzer1,2, P. Hadjinicolaou1, and J.-P. Cammas3
1Energy, Environment and Water Research Centre, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus
2MPI for Chemistry (Otto Hahn Institute), Mainz, Germany
3Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, CNRS – Laboratoire d'Aérologie, Toulouse, France

Abstract. Recently it was discovered that over the Middle East during summer ozone mixing ratios can reach a pronounced maximum in the middle troposphere. Here we extend the analysis to the surface and show that especially in the Persian Gulf region conditions are highly favorable for ozone air pollution. Model results indicate that the region is a hot spot of photo-smog where air quality standards are violated throughout the year. Long-distance transports of air pollution from Europe, the Middle East, natural emissions and stratospheric ozone conspire to bring about high background ozone mixing ratios. This provides a hotbed to indigenous air pollution in the dry local weather conditions, which are likely to get worse in future.

Citation: Lelieveld, J., Hoor, P., Jöckel, P., Pozzer, A., Hadjinicolaou, P., and Cammas, J.-P.: Severe ozone air pollution in the Persian Gulf region, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 8, 17739-17762, doi:10.5194/acpd-8-17739-2008, 2008.
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