Tropospheric ozone climatology at two southern subtropical sites, (Reunion Island and Irene, South Africa) from ozone sondes, LIDAR, aircraft and in situ measurements
1Laboratoire de L’Atmosphère et des Cyclones (LACy), UMR-CNRS 8105, 15, av. René Cassin, BP 7151, 97715 St-Denis Cedex 9, La Réunion, France
2Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), Université Versailles Saint Quentin, 5 Boulevard d’Alembert, 78280 Guyancourt, France
3School of environmental science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
4Service d’Aéronomie (SA), UMR-CNRS 7620 Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
5Service d’Aéronomie (SA), UMR-CNRS 7620 Verrières le Buisson, 91371, France
6Lab. d’Aérologie (LA), UMR-CNRS 5560 14, av. Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
Abstract. This paper presents a climatology and trends of tropospheric ozone in the southwestern part of Indian Ocean (Reunion Island) and South Africa (Irene and Johannesburg). This study is based on a multi-instrumental dataset: PTU-O3 radiosoundings, DIAL LIDAR, MOZAIC airborne instrumentation and Dasibi UV ground based measurements.
The seasonal profiles of tropospheric ozone at Reunion Island have been calculated from two different data sets: radiosondes and LIDAR. The two climatological profiles are similar, except in austral summer when smaller values for the LIDAR profiles in the free troposphere, and in the upper troposphere for all seasons occur. These results show that the LIDAR profiles are at times not representative of the true ozone climatological value as measurements can be taken only under clear sky conditions, and the upper limit reached depends on the signal.
In the lower troposphere, climatological ozone values from radiosondes have been compared to a one year campaign of ground based measurements from a Dasibi instrument located at high altitude site (2150 m) at Reunion Island. The seasonal cycle is comparable for the two datasets, with Dasibi UV values displaying slightly higher values. This suggests that if local dynamical and possibly physico-chemical effects may influence the ozone level, the seasonal cycle can be followed with ground level measurements. Average ground level concentrations measured on the summits of the island seem to be representative of the lower free troposphere ozone concentration at the same altitude (~2000 m) whereas night time data would be representative of tropospheric concentration at a higher altitude (~3000 m) due to the subsidence effect.
Finally, linear trends have been calculated from radiosondes data at Reunion and Irene. Considering the whole tropospheric column, the trend is slightly positive for Reunion, and more clearly positive for Irene. Trend calculations have also been made separating the troposphere into three layers, and separating the dataset into seasons. Results shows that the positive trend for Irene is governed by the lower layer most probably by industrial pollution and biomass burning. On the contrary, for Reunion Island, the strongest trends are observed in the upper troposphere, and in winter when stratospheric-tropospheric exchange is more frequently expected.