Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 7, 7473-7508, 2007
www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/7/7473/2007/
doi:10.5194/acpd-7-7473-2007
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This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP.
Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols between Moscow and Vladivostok
S. Kuokka1, K. Teinilä1, K. Saarnio1, M. Aurela1, M. Sillanpää1, R. Hillamo1, V.-M. Kerminen1, E. Vartiainen2, M. Kulmala2, A. I. Skorokhod3, N. F. Elansky3, and I. B. Belikov3
1Finnish Meteorological Institute, Erik Palménin aukio 1, 00560, Helsinki, Finland
2University of Helsinki, Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
3Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Pyzhevsky 3, Moscow 119017, Russia

Abstract. The TROICA-9 expedition (Trans-Siberian Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) was carried out at the Trans-Siberian railway between Moscow and Vladivostok in October 2005. Measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were made from an observatory carriage connected to a passenger train. Black carbon (BC) concentrations in fine particles (PM2.5, aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm) were measured with an aethalometer using a five-minute time resolution. Concentrations of inorganic ions and some organic compounds (Cl, NO3, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, oxalate and methane sulphonate) were measured continuously by using an on-line system with a 15-min time resolution. In addition, particle volume size distributions were determined for particles in the diameter range 3–850 nm using a 10-min. time resolution. The continuous measurements were completed with 24-h. PM2.5 filter samples which were stored in a refrigerator and later analyzed in chemical laboratory. The analyses included mass concentrations of PM2.5, ions, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn). The mass concentrations of PM2.5 varied in the range of 4.3–34.8 μg m−3 with an average of 21.6 μg m−3. Fine particle mass consisted mainly of BC (average 27.6%), SO42− (13.0%), NH4+ (4.1%), and NO3 (1.4%). One of the major constituents was obviously also organic carbon which was not determined. The contribution of BC was high compared with other studies made in Europe and Asia. High concentrations of ions, BC and particle volume were observed between Moscow and roughly 4000 km east of it, as well as close to Vladivostok, primarily due to local anthropogenic sources. In the natural background area between 4000 and 7200 km distance from Moscow, observed concentrations were low, even though there were local particle sources, such as forest fires, that increased occasionally concentrations. The measurements indicated that during forest fire episodes, most of the aerosol mass consisted of organic particulate matter. Concentrations of biomass burning tracers levoglucosan, oxalate and potassium were elevated close to the forest fire areas observed by the MODIS satellite. The polluted air masses from Asia seem to have significant influences on the concentration levels of fine particles over south-eastern Russia.

Citation: Kuokka, S., Teinilä, K., Saarnio, K., Aurela, M., Sillanpää, M., Hillamo, R., Kerminen, V.-M., Vartiainen, E., Kulmala, M., Skorokhod, A. I., Elansky, N. F., and Belikov, I. B.: Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols between Moscow and Vladivostok, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 7, 7473-7508, doi:10.5194/acpd-7-7473-2007, 2007.
 
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