Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 7, 17099-17116, 2007
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This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP.
Aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation during the 1997 smoke episode in Indonesia
H.-F. Graf, J. Yang, and T. M. Wagner
Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

Abstract. In 1997/98 a severe smoke episode due to extensive biomass burning, especially of peat, was observed over Indonesia. September 1997 was the month with the highest aerosol burden. This month was simulated using the limited area model REMOTE driven at its lateral boundaries by ERA40 reanalysis data. REMOTE was extended by a new convective cloud parameterization mimicking individual clouds competing for instability energy. This allows for the interaction of aerosols and convective clouds and precipitation. Results show that convective precipitation is diminished at all places with high aerosol loading, but at some areas with high background humidity precipitation from large-scale clouds may over-compensate the loss in convective rainfall. At individual time steps, very few cases were found when polluted convective clouds produced intensified rainfall via mixed phase microphysics. However, these cases are not unequivocal and opposite results were also simulated, indicating that other than aerosol-microphysics effects have important impact on the results. Overall, the introduction of the new cumulus parameterization and of aerosol-cloud interaction improved the simulation of precipitation patterns and total amount.

Citation: Graf, H.-F., Yang, J., and Wagner, T. M.: Aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation during the 1997 smoke episode in Indonesia, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 7, 17099-17116, doi:10.5194/acpd-7-17099-2007, 2007.
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