1GAME/CNRM (Météo-France, CNRS) Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, Toulouse, France
2Centre Européen de Recherches et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique (CERFACS), Toulouse, France
3Laboratoire d'Aérologie (Université Toulouse III, CNRS), Toulouse, France
4KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute), De Bilt, The Netherlands
Abstract. We present the chemistry-climate configuration of the Météo-France Chemistry and Transport Model, MOCAGE-Climat. MOCAGE-Climat is a state-of-the-art model that simulates the global distribution of ozone and its precursors (82 chemical species) both in the troposphere and the stratosphere, up to the mid-mesosphere (~70 km). Surface processes (emissions, dry deposition), convection, and scavenging are explicitly described in the model that has been driven by the ECMWF operational analyses of the period 2000–2005, on T21 and T42 horizontal grids and 60 hybrid vertical levels, with and without a procedure that reduces calculations in the boundary layer, and with on-line or climatological deposition velocities. Model outputs have been compared to available observations, both from satellites (TOMS, HALOE, SMR, SCIAMACHY, MOPITT) and in-situ instrument measurements (ozone sondes, MOZAIC and aircraft campaigns) at climatological timescales. The distribution of long-lived species is in fair agreement with observations in the stratosphere putting apart shortcomings linked to the large-scale circulation. The variability of the ozone column, both spatially and temporarily, is satisfactory. However, the too fast Brewer-Dobson circulation accumulates too much ozone in the lower to mid-stratosphere at the end of winter. Ozone in the UTLS region does not show any systematic bias. In the troposphere better agreement with ozone sonde measurements is obtained at mid and high latitudes than in the tropics and differences with observations are the lowest in summer. Simulations using a simplified boundary layer lead to ozone differences between the model and the observations up to the mid-troposphere. NOx in the lowest troposphere is in general overestimated, especially in the winter months over the northern hemisphere, which might result from a positive bias in OH. Dry deposition fluxes of O3 and nitrogen species are within the range of values reported by recent inter-comparison model exercises. The use of climatological deposition velocities versus deposition velocities calculated on-line had greatest impact on HNO3 and NO2 in the troposphere.