A numerical study of tropical cross-tropopause transport by convective overshoots during the TROCCINOX golden day
1Laboratoire d'Aérologie, Université Paul Sabatier and CNRS, Toulouse, France
2Central Aerological Observatory, Dolgoprudny, Russia
3Institute for Atmospheric Physics, University of Mainz, Germany
Abstract. Observations obtained during the Tropical Convection, Cirrus and Nitrogen Oxides (TROCCINOX) golden day have revealed the presence of ice particles up to 410 K (18.2 km) 2 km above the local tropopause. The case is investigated using a three-dimensional quadruply nested non-hydrostatic simulation and Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) observations. The simulation fairly well reproduces the measurements along the flight track. A reasonable agreement with MSG observations is also achieved: the 10.8-μm brightness temperature (BT) minimum of 187 K is reproduced (a value 6 K colder than the environmental cold-point temperature) as well as the positive BT difference between the 6.2- and 10.8-μm bands, an overshoot signature. The simulation produces several overshooting plumes up to 410 K yielding an upward transport of water vapour of a few tons per second across the tropical tropopause. The estimated mass flux agree with those derived from over tracer budgets indicating that convection transport mass across the tropopause.