Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 5, 3723-3745, 2005
www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/5/3723/2005/
doi:10.5194/acpd-5-3723-2005
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This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP.
Chemical characteristics of ice residual nuclei in anvil cirrus clouds: evidence for homogeneous and heterogeneous ice formation
C. H. Twohy1 and M. R. Poellot2
1College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331-5503, USA
2Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, 58202-9006, USA

Abstract. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to collect and analyze residual particles from anvil cirrus clouds generated over the state of Florida in the southern United States. A wide variety of particle types were found, including salts, crustal material, industrial metals, carbonaceous particles, and sulfates. Ambient aerosol particles near the anvils were found to have similar compositions, indicating that anvils act to redistribute particles over large regions of the atmosphere. Sampling occurred at a range of altitudes spanning temperatures from –21 to –56°C. More insoluble (crustal and metallic) particles typical of heterogeneous ice nuclei were found in ice crystals at warmer temperatures, while more soluble salts and sulfates were present at cold temperatures. At temperatures below about –35 to –40°C, soluble nuclei outnumbered insoluble nuclei, reflecting the transition from primarily heterogeneous to primarily homogeneous freezing as a source of anvil ice.

Citation: Twohy, C. H. and Poellot, M. R.: Chemical characteristics of ice residual nuclei in anvil cirrus clouds: evidence for homogeneous and heterogeneous ice formation, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 5, 3723-3745, doi:10.5194/acpd-5-3723-2005, 2005.
 
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