Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 3, 5205-5236, 2003
www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/3/5205/2003/
doi:10.5194/acpd-3-5205-2003
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This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP.
Quantification of topographic venting of boundary layer air to the free troposphere
S. Henne1, M. Furger1, S. Nyeki1,2, M. Steinbacher1, B. Neininger3, S. F. J. de Wekker1,*, J. Dommen1, N. Spichtinger4, A. Stohl4,†, and A. S. H. Prévôt1
1Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland
2University of Essex, Colchester Essex, UK
3MetAir AG, Illnau, Switzerland
4Lehrstuhl für Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany
*Current affiliation: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA
Current affiliation: NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA

Abstract. Net vertical air mass export by thermally driven f\/lows from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to the free troposphere (FT) above deep Alpine valleys was investigated. The vertical export of pollutants above mountainous terrain is presently poorly represented in global chemistry transport models (GCTMs) and needs to be quantified. Air mass budgets were calculated using aircraft observations obtained in deep Alpine valleys. The results show that on average 3 times the valley air mass is exported vertically per day under fair weather conditions. During daytime the type of valleys investigated in this study can act as an efficient "air pump" that transports pollutants upward. The slope wind system within the valley plays an important role in redistributing pollutants. Nitrogen oxide emissions in mountainous regions are efficiently injected into the FT. This enhances their ozone production efficiency and thus influences tropospheric pollution budgets. Once lifted to the FT above the Alps pollutants are transported horizontally by the synoptic flow and are subject to European pollution export. Forward trajectory studies show that under fair weather conditions two major pathways for air masses above the Alps dominate. Air masses moving north are mixed throughout the whole tropospheric column and further transported eastward towards Asia. Air masses moving south descend within the subtropical high pressure system above the Mediterranean.

Citation: Henne, S., Furger, M., Nyeki, S., Steinbacher, M., Neininger, B., de Wekker, S. F. J., Dommen, J., Spichtinger, N., Stohl, A., and Prévôt, A. S. H.: Quantification of topographic venting of boundary layer air to the free troposphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 3, 5205-5236, doi:10.5194/acpd-3-5205-2003, 2003.
 
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