Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 8701-8767, 2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Review Status
This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP.
Laboratory studies of immersion and deposition mode ice nucleation of ozone aged mineral dust particles
Z. A. Kanji1,*, A. Welti1, C. Chou1,**, O. Stetzer1, and U. Lohmann1
1Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, ETH, Zurich, 8092, Switzerland
*now at: Air Quality Research Division, Environment Canada, Toronto, ON M3H 5T4, Canada
**now at: Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, AL10 9AB, Hatfield, UK

Abstract. Ice nucleation in the atmosphere is central to the understanding the microphysical properties of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds. Ambient conditions such as temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), as well as aerosol properties such as chemical composition and mixing state play an important role in predicting ice formation in the troposphere. Previous field studies have reported the absence of sulphate and organic compounds on mineral dust ice crystal residuals sampled at mountain top stations or aircraft based measurements despite the long range transport mineral dust is subjected to. We present laboratory studies of ice nucleation for immersion and deposition mode on ozone aged mineral dust particles for 233 < T < 263 K that will represent ageing but not internal mixing with in(organic) compounds. Heterogeneous ice nucleation of untreated kaolinite (Ka) and Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles is compared to corresponding aged particles that are subjected to ozone exposures of 0.4–4.3 ppmv in a stainless steel aerosol tank. The portable ice nucleation counter (PINC) and immersion chamber combined with the Zurich ice nucleation chamber (IMCA – ZINC) are used to conduct deposition and immersion mode measurements respectively. Ice active fractions as well as ice active surface site densities (ns) are reported and observed to increase as a function of temperature. We present first results that demonstrate enhancement of the ice nucleation ability of aged mineral dust particles in both the deposition and immersion mode due to ageing. Additionally, these are also the first results to show a suppression of heterogeneous ice nucleation without the condensation of a coating of (in)organic material. In immersion mode, low exposure Ka particles showed enhanced ice activity requiring a median freezing temperature of 1.5 K warmer than that of untreated Ka whereas high exposure ATD particles showed suppressed ice nucleation requiring a median freezing temperature of 3 K colder than that of untreated ATD. In deposition mode, low exposure Ka had ice active fractions of an order of magnitude higher than untreated Ka, where as high exposure ATD had ice active fractions up to a factor of 4 lower than untreated ATD. Based on our results, we present parameterizations in terms of ns(T) that can represent ice nucleation of atmospherically aged and non-aged particles for both immersion and deposition mode. We find excellent agreement (to within less than a factor of 2) with field measurements when parameterizations derived from our results are used to predict ice nuclei concentrations in the troposphere.

Citation: Kanji, Z. A., Welti, A., Chou, C., Stetzer, O., and Lohmann, U.: Laboratory studies of immersion and deposition mode ice nucleation of ozone aged mineral dust particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 8701-8767, doi:10.5194/acpd-13-8701-2013, 2013.
Search ACPD
Discussion Paper
    Final Revised Paper