1Aarhus University, Department of Environmental Science, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
2Aarhus University, Section of Environment, Occupation, and Health, Institute of Public Health, Bartholins Allé 2, Building 1260, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
3University of Copenhagen, Planet and Geophysics, Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 København Ø, Denmark
4Aarhus University, AU Knowledge, Tuborgvej 164, 2400 København NV, Denmark
*now at: Centre for Environmental and Climate Research, Lund university, Sölvegatan 37, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
Abstract. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors, which can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. Central for the system is a newly developed tagging method capable of calculating the contribution from a specific emission source or sector to the overall air pollution levels, taking into account the non-linear atmospheric chemistry. The main objective of this work is to identify the anthropogenic emission sources in Europe and Denmark that contribute the most to human health impacts using this tagging method. In this study, we applied the EVA system to Europe and Denmark, with a detailed analysis of health-related external costs from the ten major emission sectors and their relative contributions. The paper contains a thorough description of the EVA system, the main results from the assessment of the main contributors and a discussion of the most important atmospheric chemical reactions relevant for interpreting the results. The main conclusion from the analysis of the ten major emission sectors in Europe and Denmark is that the major contributors to health-related external costs are major power production, agriculture, road traffic, and non-industrial domestic combustion, including wood combustion. We conclude that when regulating the emissions of ammonia from the agricultural sector, both the impacts on nature and on human health should be taken into account. This study confirms that air pollution constitutes a serious problem to human health and that the related external costs are considerable. The results in this work emphasize the importance of defining the right questions in the decision making process, since most of the atmospheric chemical compounds are linked via non-linear chemical reactions, which are important to take into account. The results from assessing the impacts from each emission sector depend clearly on the assumption that the other emission sectors are not changed, especially emissions changing concentrations of atmospheric OH and therefore live times of other chemical species.