Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 23373-23419, 2013
www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/13/23373/2013/
doi:10.5194/acpd-13-23373-2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Review Status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).
Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling
F. Yan1,2, E. Winijkul3, D. G. Streets1,2, Z. Lu1,2, T. C. Bond3, and Y. Zhang4
1Decision and Information Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA
2Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
3Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
4Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA

Abstract. In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable details on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). We project that global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector will be in the range of 3.0–4.0 Gt across the four scenarios in the year 2030. Corresponding global emissions are projected to be 101–138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44–54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14–18 Tg of total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6–4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM). At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010–2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two largest contributors to global CO and THC emissions in the year 2010; this dominance shifts to Africa and South Asia in the future. By the year 2050, for CO and THC emissions, non-road engines contribute the greatest fraction in Asia and the Former USSR, while on-road vehicles make the largest contribution in Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East; for NOx and PM emissions, shipping controls the trend in most regions. These forecasts include a formal treatment of the factors that drive technology choices in the global vehicle sector and therefore represent a more realistic projection of what future emissions are likely to be. These results have important implications for emissions of gases and aerosols that influence air quality, human health, and climate change.

Citation: Yan, F., Winijkul, E., Streets, D. G., Lu, Z., Bond, T. C., and Zhang, Y.: Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 23373-23419, doi:10.5194/acpd-13-23373-2013, 2013.
 
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