1Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8601, Japan
2Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine 1-1, Tsukuba, 305-0052, Japan
3Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Kita 19 Jo, Nishi 8 chome, Sapporo, 060-0819, Japan
4Department of Earth Science, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama, 930-0887, Japan
5Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, Hamasaka 1390, Tottori, 680-0001, Japan
6Department of Earth System Science, Fukuoka University, Jounan-ku, Nanakuma 8-19-1, Fukuoka, 814-0180, Japan
7National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, 305-0053, Japan
8Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, 277-8564, Japan
*now at: Hokuriku Electric Power Company, Toyama, Japan
Abstract. Data of temporal variations and spatial distributions of mineral dust deposition fluxes are very limited in terms of duration, location, and processes of deposition. To ascertain temporal variations and spatial distributions of mineral dust deposition by wet and dry processes, weekly deposition samples were obtained at Sapporo, Toyama, Nagoya, Tottori, Fukuoka, and Cape Hedo (Okinawa) in Japan during October 2008–December 2010 using automatic wet and dry separating samplers. Mineral dust weights in water-insoluble residue were estimated from Fe contents measured using an X-ray fluorescence analyzer. For wet deposition, highest and lowest annual dust fluxes were found at Toyama (9.6 g m−2 yr−1) and at Cape Hedo (1.7 g m−2 yr−1) as average values in 2009 and 2010. Higher wet deposition fluxes were observed at Toyama and Tottori, where frequent precipitation (>60% days per month) was observed during dusty seasons. For dry deposition among Toyama, Tottori, Fukuoka, and Cape Hedo, the highest and lowest annual dust fluxes were found respectively at Fukuoka (5.2 g m−2 yr−1) and at Cape Hedo (2.0 g m−2 yr−1) as average values in 2009 and 2010.
Although the seasonal tendency of the monthly dry deposition amount roughly resembled that of monthly days of Kosa dust events, the monthly amount of dry deposition was not proportional to monthly days of the events. Comparison of dry deposition fluxes with vertical distribution of dust particles deduced from Lidar data and coarse particle concentrations suggested that the maximum dust layer height or thickness is an important factor for controlling the dry deposition amount after long-range transport of dust particles. Size distributions of refractory dust particles were obtained using four-stage filtration: >20, >10, >5, and >1 μm diameter. Weight fractions of the sum of >20 μm and 10–20 μm (giant fraction) were higher than 50% for most of the event samples. Irrespective of the deposition type, the giant dust fractions were decreasing generally with increasing distance from the source area, suggesting the selective depletion of larger giant particles during atmospheric transport. Because giant dust particles are an important mass fraction of dust accumulation, especially in the north Pacific where is known as a high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) region, the transport height of giant dust particles is an important factor for studying dust budgets in the atmosphere and their role in biogeochemical cycles.