Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 11827-11862, 2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Review Status
This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP.
Transport of atmospheric NOx and HNO3 over Cape Town
B. J. Abiodun1, A. M. Ojumu2, S. Jenner1, and T. V. Ojumu3
1Climate Systems Analysis Group, Department of Environmental and Geographical Science, University of Cape Town, South Africa
2Department of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences, University of South Africa, South Africa
3Department of Chemical Engineering, Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa

Abstract. Cape Town, the most popular tourist city in Africa, usually experiences air pollution with unpleasant odour in winter. Previous studies have associated the pollution with local emission of pollutants within the city. The present study examines the transport of atmospheric pollutants (NOx and HNO3) over South Africa and shows how the transport of pollutants from the Mpumalanga Highveld may contribute to the pollution in Cape Town. The study analysed observation data (2001–2008) from Cape Town air quality network and simulation data (2001–2004) from regional climate model (RegCM4) over southern Africa. The simulation accounts for the influence of complex topography, atmospheric condition, and atmospheric chemistry on emission and transport of pollutants over southern Africa. Flux budget analysis was used to examine whether Cape Town is a source or sink for NOx and HNO3 during the extreme pollution events.

The results show that extreme pollution events over Cape Town are associated with the low-level (surface–850 hPa) transport of NOx from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town, and with a tongue of high concentration of HNO3 that extends from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town along the south coast of South Africa. The prevailing atmospheric conditions during the extreme pollution events feature an upper-level (700 hPa) anticyclonic flow over South Africa and a low-level col over Cape Town. The anticyclonic flow induces a strong subsidence motion, which prevents vertical mixing of the pollutants and caps high concentration of pollutants close to the surface as they are transported from the Mpumalanga Highveld toward Cape Town, while the col accumulates the pollutants over the city. This study shows that Cape Town can be a sink for the NOx and HNO3 during extreme pollution events and suggests that the accumulation of pollutants transported from other areas (e.g. Mpumalanga Highveld) may contribute substantially to the air pollution in Cape Town.

Citation: Abiodun, B. J., Ojumu, A. M., Jenner, S., and Ojumu, T. V.: Transport of atmospheric NOx and HNO3 over Cape Town, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 11827-11862, doi:10.5194/acpd-13-11827-2013, 2013.
Search ACPD
Discussion Paper
    Final Revised Paper