1Université de la Réunion, Laboratoire de l'Atmosphère et des Cyclones, UMR8105, UMR CNRS-Météo France-Université, La Réunion, France
2Singapore Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
3Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, UMR8190, Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, Université Versailles-Saint Quentin, Guyancourt, France
4Center for Space and Remote Sensing Research National Central University, Chung-Li 3200, Taiwan
5National Climate Centre, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia
6School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University, Melbourne, Australia
Abstract. Activity and spectral characteristics of gravity-waves (GWs) are analyzed during tropical cyclone (TC) Ivan (2008) in the troposphere and lower stratosphere using radiosonde and GPS radio occultation data, ECMWF outputs and simulations of French numerical model Meso-NH with vertical resolution varying between 150 m near the surface and 500 m in the lower stratosphere. Conventional methods for GW analysis and signal and image processing tools provide information on a wide spectrum of GWs with horizontal wavelengths of 40–1800 km and short vertical wavelengths of 0.6–10 km respectively and periods of 20 min–2 days. MesoNH model, initialized with Aladin-Réunion analyses, produces realistic and detailed description of TC dynamics, GWs, variability of the tropospheric and stratospheric background wind and TC rainband characteristics at different stages of TC Ivan. In particular a dominant eastward propagating TC-related quasi-inertia GW is present during intensification of TC Ivan with horizontal and vertical wavelengths of 400–600 km and 1.5–3.5 km respectively during intensification. A wavenumber-1 vortex Rossby wave is identified as a source of this medium-scale mode while short-scale modes located at north-east and south-east of the TC could be attributed to strong localized convection in spiral bands resulting from wavenumber-2 vortex Rossby waves. Meso-NH simulations also reveal high-frequency GWs with horizontal wavelengths of 20–80 km near the TC eye and high-frequency GWs-related clouds behind TC Ivan. In addition, GWs produced during landfall are likely to strongly contribute to background wind in the middle and upper troposphere as well as the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation.