Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 8857-8920, 2012
www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/12/8857/2012/
doi:10.5194/acpd-12-8857-2012
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Review Status
This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP.
Organics in environmental ices: sources, chemistry, and impacts
V. F. McNeill1, A. M. Grannas2, J. P. D. Abbatt3, M. Ammann4, P. Ariya5, T. Bartels-Rausch4, F. Domine6, D. J. Donaldson3, M. I. Guzman7, D. Heger8,9, T. F. Kahan10, P. Klán8,9, S. Masclin11, C. Toubin12, and D. Voisin13
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
2Department of Chemistry, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085, USA
3Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6, Canada
4Laboratory of Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
5Department of Chemistry and Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, PQ, H3A 2K6, Canada
6Takuvik International Laboratory, Université Laval and CNRS, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada
7Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
8Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5/A, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
9Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
10Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0215, USA
11Environmental Systems, University of California, Merced, Merced, CA 95343, USA
12Laboratoire PhLAM – UFR de Physique, Université Lille, 59655 Villeneuve D'Ascq Cedex, France
13LGGE/OSUG, Université Joseph Fourier, 38402 Saint Martin d'Hères, France

Abstract. The physical, chemical, and biological processes involving organics in ice in the environment impact a number of atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles. Organic material in snow or ice may be biological in origin, deposited from aerosols or atmospheric gases, or formed chemically in situ. In this manuscript, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the sources, properties, and chemistry of organic materials in environmental ices. Several outstanding questions remain to be resolved and fundamental data gathered before a comprehensive, accurate model of organic species in the cryosphere will be possible. For example, more information is needed regarding the quantitative impacts of chemical and biological processes, ice morphology, and snow formation on the fate of organic material in cold regions. Interdisciplinary work at the interfaces of chemistry, physics and biology is needed in order to fully characterize the nature and evolution of organics in the cryosphere and predict the effects of climate change on the Earth's carbon cycle.

Citation: McNeill, V. F., Grannas, A. M., Abbatt, J. P. D., Ammann, M., Ariya, P., Bartels-Rausch, T., Domine, F., Donaldson, D. J., Guzman, M. I., Heger, D., Kahan, T. F., Klán, P., Masclin, S., Toubin, C., and Voisin, D.: Organics in environmental ices: sources, chemistry, and impacts, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 8857-8920, doi:10.5194/acpd-12-8857-2012, 2012.
 
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