Investigation of gaseous and particulate emissions from various marine vessel types measured on the banks of the Elbe in Northern Germany J.-M. Diesch1, F. Drewnick1, T. Klimach1, and S. Borrmann1,2 1Particle Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany 2Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Received: 25 Jul 2012 – Accepted: 10 Aug 2012 – Published: 29 Aug 2012
Abstract. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological
parameters using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of
the Lower Elbe in an emission control area (ECA) which is passed by numerous
private and commercial marine vessels reaching and leaving the port of
Hamburg, Germany. From 25–30 April 2011 a total of 178 vessels were probed
at a distance of about 0.8–2 km with high temporal resolution. 139 ship
emission plumes were of sufficient quality to be analyzed further and to
determine emission factors (EFs).
Concentrations of aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAH) and black carbon were measured in PM1 and size
distribution instruments covered the size diameter range from 6 nm up to 32 μm.
The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol
was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS).
Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gases (O3,
SO2, NO, NO2, CO2) in the air and a weather station provided
wind, precipitation, solar radiation and other parameters. Together with
ship information for each vessel obtained from Automatic Identification
System (AIS) broadcasts a detailed characterization of the individual ship
types and of features affecting gas and particulate emissions is provided.
Particle number EFs (average 2.6×1016 # kg −1) and PM1
mass EFs (average 2.4 g kg −1) positively correlate with the fuel
sulfur content and depend on the engine type and performance. Observed
PM1 composition of the vessel emissions was dominated by organic matter
(72%), sulfate (22%) and black carbon (6%) while PAHs only account
for 0.2% of the submicron aerosol mass. Measurements of gaseous
components showed an increase of SO2 (average EF: 7.7 g kg−1) and
NOx (average EF: 53 g kg−1) while O3 decreased when a ship
plume reached the sampling site. The particle number size distributions of
the vessels are generally characterized by a bimodal size distribution, with
the nucleation mode in the 10–20 nm diameter range and a combustion aerosol
mode centered at about 35 nm while particles >1 μm were
not found. "High particle number emitters" are characterized by a dominant
nucleation mode. By contrast, a third weaker mode at 150 nm primarily
occurred for "high black carbon emitters". Classifying the vessels
according to their gross tonnage shows a decrease of the number, black
carbon and PAH EFs while EFs of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, AMS
species (particulate organics, sulfate) and PM1 mass concentration
increase with increasing gross tonnages.
Citation: Diesch, J.-M., Drewnick, F., Klimach, T., and Borrmann, S.: Investigation of gaseous and particulate emissions from various marine vessel types measured on the banks of the Elbe in Northern Germany, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 22269-22307, doi:10.5194/acpd-12-22269-2012, 2012.