Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 20033-20072, 2012
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
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This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP.
The spring 2011 final stratospheric warming above Eureka: anomalous dynamics and chemistry
C. Adams1, K. Strong1, X. Zhao1, A. E. Bourassa2, W. H. Daffer3, D. Degenstein2, J. R. Drummond1,4, E. E. Farahani1, A. Fraser1,*, N. D. Lloyd2, G. L. Manney3,5,**, C. A. McLinden6, M. Rex7, C. Roth2, S. E. Strahan8, K. A. Walker1,9, and I. Wohltmann7
1Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
2University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
3Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA
4Department of Physics and Atmospheric Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
5New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico, USA
6Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario, Canada
7Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany
8Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, Maryland, USA
9Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
*now at: School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
**now at: NorthWest Research Associates, Socorro, New Mexico, USA

Abstract. In spring 2011, the Arctic polar vortex was stronger than in any other year on record. As the polar vortex started to break up in April, ozone and NO2 columns were measured with UV-visible spectrometers above the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Canada (80.05° N, 86.42° W) using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. These ground-based column measurements were complemented by Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS) satellite measurements, Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) simulations, and dynamical parameters. On 8 April 2011, NO2 columns above PEARL from the DOAS, OMI, and GMI datasets were approximately twice as large as in previous years. On this day, temperatures and ozone volume mixing ratios above Eureka were high, suggesting enhanced chemical production of NO2 from NO. Additionally, GMI NOx and N2O fields suggest that downward transport along the vortex edge and horizontal transport from lower latitudes also contributed to the enhanced NO2. The anticyclone that transported lower-latitude NOx above PEARL became frozen-in and persisted in dynamical and GMI N2O fields until the end of the measurement period on 31 May 2011. Ozone isolated within this frozen-in anticyclone (FrIAC) in the middle stratosphere was depleted due to reactions with the enhanced NOx. Ozone loss was calculated using the passive tracer technique, with passive ozone profiles from the Lagrangian Chemistry and Transport Model, ATLAS. At 600 K, ozone losses between 1 December 2010 and 20 May 2011 reached 4.2 parts per million by volume (ppmv) (58%) and 4.4 ppmv (61%), when calculated using GMI and OSIRIS ozone profiles, respectively. This middle-stratosphere gas-phase ozone loss led to a more rapid decrease in ozone column amounts in April/May 2011 compared with previous years. Ground-based, OMI, and GMI ozone total columns within the FrIAC all decreased by more than 100 DU from 15 April to 20 May. Two lows in the ozone columns were also investigated and were attributed to a vortex remnant passing above Eureka at ~500 K on 12/13 May and an ozone mini-hole on 22/23 May.

Citation: Adams, C., Strong, K., Zhao, X., Bourassa, A. E., Daffer, W. H., Degenstein, D., Drummond, J. R., Farahani, E. E., Fraser, A., Lloyd, N. D., Manney, G. L., McLinden, C. A., Rex, M., Roth, C., Strahan, S. E., Walker, K. A., and Wohltmann, I.: The spring 2011 final stratospheric warming above Eureka: anomalous dynamics and chemistry, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 20033-20072, doi:10.5194/acpd-12-20033-2012, 2012.
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