1Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, China
2Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
3Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
4School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, China
5School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yet-Sen University, Guangzhou, China
6College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China
Abstract. Heterogeneous processes on dust particles are important for understanding the chemistry and radiative balance of the atmosphere. This paper investigates an intense Asian dust storm episode observed at Mount Heng (1250 m a.s.l.) in Southern China on 24–26 April 2009. A set of aerosol and trace gas data collected during the study was analyzed to investigate their chemical evolution and heterogeneous photochemistry as the dust traveled to Southern China. Results show that the mineral dust arriving at Mt. Heng experienced significant modifications during transport, with large enrichments in secondary species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) compared with the dust composition collected at an upwind mountain top site (Mount Hua). A photochemical age "clock" (−log10(NOx/NOy)) was employed to quantify the atmospheric processing time. The result indicates an obvious increase in the abundance of secondary water-soluble ions in dust particles with the air mass' photochemical age. Based on the observations, a 4-stage evolution process is proposed for carbonate-rich Asian dust, starting from fresh dust to particles coated with hydrophilic and acidic materials. Daytime-enhanced nitrite formation on the dust particles was also observed, which indicates the recent laboratory result of the TiO2 photocatalysis of NO2 as a potential source of nitrite and nitrous acid.