Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 1117-1150, 2012
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
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This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP.
Sulfuric acid nucleation: power dependencies, variation with relative humidity, and effect of bases
J. H. Zollner1, W. A. Glasoe1, B. Panta1, K. K. Carlson1, P. H. McMurry2, and D. R. Hanson1
1Department of Chemistry, Augsburg College, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA

Abstract. Nucleation of particles composed of sulfuric acid, water, and nitrogen base molecules was studied using a continuous flow reactor. The particles formed from these vapors were detected with an ultrafine condensation particle counter, while vapors of sulfuric acid and nitrogen bases were detected by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Variation of particle numbers with sulfuric acid concentration yielded a power dependency on sulfuric acid of 5 ± 1 for relative humidities of 14–68% at 296 K; similar experiments with varying water content yielded power dependencies on H2O of ~7. The critical cluster contains about 5 H2SO4 molecules and a new treatment of the power dependency for H2O suggests about 12 H2O molecules for these conditions. Addition of 2-to-45 pptv of ammonia or methyl amine resulted in up to millions of times more particles than in the absence of these compounds. Particle detection efficiencies, sulfuric acid and nitrogen base detection, wall losses, and the extent of particle growth are discussed with the help of a recent computational fluid dynamics study that simulated the flow and chemistry in the flow reactor. Results are compared to previous laboratory nucleation studies and they are also discussed in terms of atmospheric nucleation scenarios.

Citation: Zollner, J. H., Glasoe, W. A., Panta, B., Carlson, K. K., McMurry, P. H., and Hanson, D. R.: Sulfuric acid nucleation: power dependencies, variation with relative humidity, and effect of bases, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 1117-1150, doi:10.5194/acpd-12-1117-2012, 2012.
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