Characterization of ions at Alpine waterfalls
1Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
2Paracelsus Medical University, Institute for Physiology and Pathophysiology, Strubergasse 21, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
3University of Salzburg, Department of Materials Research and Physics, Division of Physics and Biophysics, Hellbrunner Str. 34, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
Abstract. During a three-year field campaign of measuring waterfall generated ions, we monitored five different waterfalls in the Austrian Alps. Most measurements were performed at the Krimml waterfall (Salzburg), which is the biggest and most visited one in Europe and the Gartl waterfall (Mölltal, Carinthia). Smallest ion sizes (0.9–2 nm) were measured with a cylindrical air ion detector (CDI-06) while ion sizes from 5.5 to 350 nm were measured using a modified Grimm SMPS aerosol spectrometer. Measurements showed high negative ion gradients nearby waterfalls whereas positive ions showed only a moderate increase. The most abundant sizes of nano-sized and sub-micrometer ions measured were at 2 nm and of the larger and heavier ones at 120 nm.