Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995
1Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany
2South African Weather Service c/o CSIR, P.O. Box 320, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa
3GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Max-Planck-Strasse, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
4Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Seestrasse 15, 18119 Rostock-Warnemünde, Germany
Abstract. Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentration have decreased by about 20 to 38% since 1996 as indicated by long term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 yrs is unprecedented among most of atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant emissions over the period. It suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.