A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China
1Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
2Energy, Environment and Water Research Centre, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus
3Department of Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
*now at: Northwest Electric Power Design Institute, Chinese Power Engineering Consulting Group, Xian, China
**now at: Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
Abstract. Huabei is a part of eastern China located between 32° N and 42° N latitude. Administratively it is a region including Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, Hebei and Shanxi Provinces, and Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region. Over the past decades, the region has experienced dramatic changes in air quality and climate, and has become a major focus of environmental research in China. Here we present a new inventory of air pollutant emissions in Huabei for the year 2003 developed as part of the project Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China (IPAC-NC).
Our estimates are based on the data from the statistical yearbooks of state and provinces as well as local districts including major sectors and activities of power generation, industrial energy consumption, industrial processing, civil energy consumption, crop straw burning, oil and solvent evaporation, manure, and motor vehicles. The emission factors are selected from a variety of literature and those from local measurements in China are used whenever available. The estimated total emissions in the Huabei administrative region in 2003 are 4.73 Tg SO2, 2.72 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 1.77 Tg VOC, 24.14 Tg CO, 2.03 Tg NH3, 4.57 Tg PM10, 2.42 Tg PM2.5, 0.21 Tg EC, and 0.46 Tg OC.
For model convenience, we consider a larger Huabei region with Shandong, Henan and Liaoning Provinces included in our inventory. The estimated total emissions in the larger Huabei region in 2003 are: 9.55 Tg SO2, 5.27 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 3.82 Tg VOC, 46.59 Tg CO, 5.36 Tg NH3, 10.74 Tg PM10, 5.62 Tg PM2.5, 0.41 Tg EC, and 0.99 Tg OC. The estimated emission rates are projected into grid cells at a horizontal resolution of 0.1° latitude by 0.1° longitude. Our gridded emission inventory consists of area sources, which are classified into industrial, civil, traffic, and straw burning sectors, and large industrial point sources, which include 345 sets of power plants, iron and steel plants, cement plants, and chemical plants.
The estimated regional NO2 emissions are about 2–3 % (administrative Huabei region) or 5 % (larger Huabei region) of the global anthropogenic NO2 emissions. We compare our inventory (IPAC-NC) with a global emission inventory EDGAR-CIRCE and an Asian emission inventory INTEX-B. While the total emissions in Huabei are comparable with each other, large differences up to a factor of 2–3 for local emissions in the areas such as the Beijing and Tianjin megacities are found. We expect that our inventory will provide more practical spatial distributions of air pollutant emissions in the Huabei region of China and can be applied for air pollution and chemistry research on this region in the future.