1Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
2National Institute of Meteorological Research, Seoul, Korea
3School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
4Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada, USA
5National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon, Korea
Abstract. Aerosol size distribution, total concentration (i.e., condensation nuclei (CN) concentration, NCN), cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration (NCCN), hygroscopicity at ~90 % relative humidity (RH) were measured at a background monitoring site at Gosan, Jeju Island, south of the Korea Peninsula in August 2006, April to May 2007 and August to October 2008. Similar measurement took place in August 2009 at another background site (Baengnyeongdo Comprehensive Monitoring Observatory, BCMO) on the island of Baengnyeongdo, off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula. Both islands were found to be influenced by continental sources regardless of season and year. Average values for all of the measured NCCN at 0.2, 0.6 and 1.0 % supersaturations (S), NCN, and geometric mean diameter (Dg) from both islands were in the range of 1043–3051 cm−3, 2076–4360 cm−3, 2713–4694 cm−3, 3890–5117 cm−3 and 81–98 nm, respectively. Although the differences in Dg and NCN were small between Gosan and BCMO, NCCN at various S was much higher at the latter, which is closer to China.
Most of the aerosols were internally mixed and no notable differences in hygroscopicity were found between the days of strong pollution influence and the non-pollution days for both islands. During the 2008 and 2009 campaigns, critical supersaturation for cloud nucleation (Sc) for selected particle sizes was measured. Particles of 100 nm diameters had mean Sc of 0.19 ± 0.02 % during 2008 and those of 81 and 110 nm diameters had mean Sc of 0.26 ± 0.07 % and 0.17 ± 0.04 %, respectively, during 2009. Hygroscopicity parameters estimated from the measured Sc were mostly higher than the ones from the measured hygroscopic growth at ~90 % RH.
For the 2008 campaign, NCCN at 0.2, 0.6 and 1.0 % S were predicted based on the measured dry particle size distribution and various ways of representing aerosol hygroscopicity. The best closure was obtained when temporally varying and size-resolved hygroscopicity information from HTDMA was used, for which the average relative deviations from the measured values were 19 % for 1.0 % S and 28 % for 0.2 % S. Prescribing a constant hygroscopicity parameter suggested in literature (κ = 0.3) for all sizes and time resulted in the average relative deviations, 25–40 %. When constant hygroscopicity was assumed, the relative deviation tended to increase with decreasing NCCN, which was accompanied by increase of sub-100 nm fraction. These results suggest that hygroscopicity information for aerosols of diameters smaller than 100 nm is crucial for more accurate prediction of NCCN.