Novel application of satellite and in-situ measurements to map surface-level NO2 in the Great Lakes region
1Southern Ontario Centre for Atmospheric Aerosol Research, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
2Air Quality Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Downsview, ON, Canada
3Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
4Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric NO2 vertical column density data were used in conjunction with in-situ NO2 concentrations collected by permanently installed monitoring stations to infer 24 h surface-level NO2 concentrations at 0.1° (~ 11 km) resolution. The region examined included rural and suburban areas, and the highly industrialised area of Windsor, Ontario, which is situated directly across the US-Canada border from Detroit, MI. Photolytic NO2 monitors were collocated with standard NO2 monitors to provide qualitative data regarding NOz interference during the campaign. To test the accuracy of the OMI-inferred concentrations, two-week integrative NO2 measurements were collected using passive monitors at 18 locations, approximating a 15 km grid across the region, for 7 consecutive two-week periods. When compared with these passive results, satellite-inferred concentrations showed an 18 % positive bias. The correlation of the passive monitor and OMI-inferred concentrations (R = 0.69, n = 115) was stronger than that for the passive monitor concentrations and OMI column densities (R = 0.52), indicating that using a sparse network of monitoring sites to estimate concentrations improves the direct utility of the OMI observations. OMI-inferred concentrations were then calculated for four years to show an overall declining trend in surface NO2 concentrations in the region. Additionally, by separating OMI-inferred surface concentrations by wind direction, clear patterns in emissions and affected down-wind regions, in particular around the US-Canada border, were revealed.