New and extended parameterization of the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC: calculation of activity coefficients for organic-inorganic mixtures containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, and aromatic functional groups
1Department of Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA
2Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
3School of Earth, Environmental and Atmospheric Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
4School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
Abstract. We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, Br−, NO3−, HSO4−, and SO42−. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization algorithms. A number of exemplary calculations for systems containing atmospherically relevant aerosol components are shown. Amongst others, we discuss aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate with dicarboxylic acids and with levoglucosan. Overall, the new parameterization of AIOMFAC agrees well with a large number of experimental datasets. However, due to various reasons, for certain mixtures important deviations can occur. The new parameterization makes AIOMFAC a versatile thermodynamic tool. It enables the calculation of activity coefficients of thousands of different organic compounds in organic-inorganic mixtures of numerous components. Models based on AIOMFAC can be used to compute deliquescence relative humidities, liquid-liquid phase separations, and gas-particle partitioning of multicomponent mixtures of relevance for atmospheric chemistry or in other scientific fields.