The relative importance of various source regions on East Asian surface ozone
1Asian Environment Research Group, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
2Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
3Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan
4Acid Deposition and Oxidant Research Center, Niigata, Japan
Abstract. The Source-Receptor (S-R) relationship for surface O3 in East Asia is estimated for recent years in this study utilizing the tagged tracer method with a global chemical transport model. The estimation shows the importance of intra-continental transport of O3 inside East Asia as well as the transport of O3 from distant source regions. The model well simulated the absolute concentration and seasonal variation of surface O3 in the East Asian region, and demonstrated significant seasonal difference in the origin of surface O3. More than half of surface O3 is attributable to the O3 transported from distant sources outside of East Asia in the cold season (October to March). In the warm season (April to September), most of the surface O3 is attributed to O3 created within East Asia in most areas of East Asia. The contribution of domestically-created O3 accounts for 20% of surface O3 in Japan and the Korean Peninsula, 40% in North China Plain and around 50% in the southern part of China in spring, which increase greatly in summer. The contribution of China and the Korean Peninsula to Japan are estimated at about 10% and 5%, respectively. A large contribution (20%) of China to the Korean Peninsula is also demonstrated. In the northern and southern part of China, large contribution of over 10% from East Siberia and the Indochina Peninsula are identified, respectively. The contribution of intercontinental transport increases with latitude; it is 21% in Northeast China and 13% in Japan and the Korean Peninsula in spring. As for one-hourly mean surface O3, domestically-created O3 is the main contributor in most areas of East Asia, except for the low O3 class (<30 ppbv), and accounts for more than 50% in very high O3 class (>90 ppbv). The mean relative contribution of China to central Japan was about 10% in every class, but that from the Korean Peninsula is important in all expect the low O3 class. Substantial impact of foreign sources on the exceedance of Japan's AAQS is identified in the high O3 class (60–90 ppbv) in spring.