1Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Korea
2Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, USA
3Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA
4Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Washington, USA
*now at: School of Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikel, Nepal
Abstract. A high-resolution estimate of monthly 3-D aerosol solar heating rates and surface solar fluxes in Asia from 2001 to 2004 is described here. This product stems from an Asian aerosol assimilation project, in which a) the PNNL regional model bounded by the NCEP reanalyses was used to provide meteorology, b) MODIS and AERONET data were integrated for aerosol observations, c) the Iowa aerosol/chemistry model STEM-2K1 used the PNNL meteorology and assimilated aerosol observations, and d) 3-D (X-Y-Z) aerosol simulations from the STEM-2K1 were used in the Scripps Monte-Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiation (MACR) model to produce total and anthropogenic aerosol direct solar forcing for average cloudy skies. The MACR model and STEM both used the PNNL model resolution of 0.45°×0.4° in the horizontal and of 23 layers in the troposphere.
The 2001–2004 averaged anthropogenic all-sky aerosol forcing is -1.3 W m-2 (TOA), +7.3 W m-2 (atmosphere) and -8.6 W m-2 (surface) averaged in Asia (60–138° E and Eq. -45° N). In the absence of AERONET SSA assimilation, absorbing aerosol concentration (especially BC aerosol) is much smaller, giving -2.3 W m-2 (TOA), +4.5 W m-2 (atmosphere) and -6.8 W mm-2 (surface), averaged in Asia. In the vertical, monthly forcing is mainly concentrated below 600 hPa with maxima around 800 hPa. Seasonally, low-level forcing is far larger in dry season than in wet season in South Asia, whereas the wet season forcing exceeds the dry season forcing in East Asia. The anthropogenic forcing in the present study is similar to that in Chung et al. (2005) in overall magnitude but the former offers fine-scale features and simulated vertical profiles. The interannual variability of the computed anthropogenic forcing is significant and extremely large over major emission outflow areas. Given the interannual variability, the present study's estimate is within the implicated range of the 1999 INDOEX result. However, NCAR/CCSM3's anthropogenic aerosol forcing is much smaller than the present study's estimate at the surface, and is outside of what the INDOEX findings can support.