Results from the University of Toronto continuous flow diffusion chamber (UT-CFDC) at the international workshop for comparing ice nucleation measuring systems (ICIS 2007)
1University of Toronto, Department of Chemistry, Toronto, ON, Canada
2Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe, Germany
3Colorado State University, Department of Atmospheric Science, Fort Collins, CO, USA
*now at: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH – Zurich, Switzerland
Abstract. The University of Toronto continuous flow diffusion chamber (UT-CFDC) was used to study heterogeneous ice nucleation at the International Workshop on Comparing Ice Nucleation Measuring Systems (ICIS 2007) which also represented the 4th ice nucleation workshop, on 14–28 September 2007. One goal of the workshop was to inter-compare different ice nucleation measurement techniques using the same aerosol sample source and preparation method. The aerosol samples included four types of desert mineral dust, graphite soot particles, and live and dead bacterial cells (Snomax®). This paper focuses on the UT-CFDC results, with a comparison to techniques of established heritage including the Colorado State CFDC and the AIDA expansion chamber. Good agreement was found between the different instruments with a few specific differences attributed to the variation in how onset of ice formation is defined between the instruments. It was found that when efficiency of ice formation is based on the lowest onset relative humidity, Snomax® particles were most efficient followed by the desert dusts and then soot. For all aerosols, deposition mode freezing was only observed for T < 245 K except for the dead bacteria where freezing occurred below water saturation as warm as 263 K.