Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10, 17153-17212, 2010
© Author(s) 2010. This work is distributed
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This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP.
Primary aerosol emission trends for China, 1990–2005
Y. Lei1,2, Q. Zhang3, K. B. He1, and D. G. Streets4
1State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2School of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
3Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
4Decision and Information Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, USA

Abstract. An inventory of anthropogenic primary aerosol emissions in China was developed for 1990–2005 using a technology-based approach. Taking into account changes in the technology penetration within industry sectors and improvements in emission controls driven by stricter emission standards, a dynamic methodology was derived and implemented to estimate inter-annual emission factors. Emission factors of PM2.5 decreased by 7%–69% from 1990 to 2005 in different industry sectors of China, and emission factors of TSP decreased by 18%–80% as well. Emissions of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP presented similar trends: increased in the first six years of 1990s and decreased until 2000, then increased again in the following years. Emissions of TSP reached a historical high (35.5 Tg) in 1996, while the peak of PM10 (18.8 Tg) and PM2.5 (12.7 Tg) emissions occurred in 2005. Although various emission trends were identified across sectors, the cement industry and biofuel combustion in the residential sector were consistently the largest sources of PM2.5 emissions, accounting for 53%–62% of emission over the study period. The non-metallic mineral product industry, including the cement, lime and brick industries, accounted for 54%–63% of national TSP emissions. There were no significant trends of BC and OC emissions until 2000, but the increase after 2000 brought the historical high of BC (1.51 Tg) and OC (3.19 Tg) emissions in 2005. Although significant improvements in the estimation of primary aerosols are presented, there still exist large uncertainties. More accurate and detailed activity information and emission factors based on local tests are essential to further improve emission estimates, this especially being so for the brick and coke industries, as well as for coal-burning stoves and biofuel usage in the residential sector.

Citation: Lei, Y., Zhang, Q., He, K. B., and Streets, D. G.: Primary aerosol emission trends for China, 1990–2005, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10, 17153-17212, doi:10.5194/acpd-10-17153-2010, 2010.
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