Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10, 12713-12763, 2010
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This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP.
In-situ observations of young contrails – overview and selected results from the CONCERT campaign
C. Voigt1,2, U. Schumann1, T. Jurkat1, D. Schäuble1,2, H. Schlager1, A. Petzold1, J.-F. Gayet3, M. Krämer4, J. Schneider5, S. Borrmann2,5, J. Schmale5, P. Jessberger1, T. Hamburger1, M. Lichtenstern1, M. Scheibe1, C. Gourbeyre3, J. Meyer4, M. Kübbeler4, W. Frey2, H. Eichler2, T. Butler5, M. G. Lawrence2,5, F. Holzäpfel1, F. Arnold1,6, M. Wendisch7, A. Döpelheuer8, K. Gottschaldt1, R. Baumann1, M. Zöger9, I. Sölch1, M. Rautenhaus1, and A. Dörnbrack1
1Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
2Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Johannes-Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany
3Universite Clermont Ferrand, LaMP, Clermont Ferrand, France
4Institut für Stratosphärenforschung, FZ Jülich, Jülich, Germany
5Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Mainz, Germany
6Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany
7Institut für Meteorologie, Universität Leipzig, Germany
8Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Antriebstechnik, Köln, Germany
9Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Flugabteilung, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

Abstract. Lineshaped contrails were detected with the research aircraft Falcon during the CONCERT – CONtrail and Cirrus ExpeRimenT – campaign in October/November 2008. Thereby the Falcon was equipped with a set of instruments to measure particle properties such as the particle size distribution, shape, extinction, chemical composition as well as trace gas concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), reactive nitrogen and halogen species (NO, NOy, HNO3, HONO, HCl), ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO). During 12 mission flights over Western Europe numerous contrails and cirrus clouds were probed at altitudes between 8.5 and 11.6 km and temperatures above 213 K. 22 contrails from 11 different aircraft were observed near and below ice saturation. The observed NO mixing ratios, ice crystal and soot number densities are compared to a process based contrail model. Further we investigate in detail the contrail from a CRJ-2 aircraft detected on 19 November 2008 in 10.1 km altitude. The contrail with an age of 1 to 2 min had average ice crystal concentrations of 128 cm−3 in the size range 0.4y) ratios of 0.037 (0.024) are in the range of previous measurements in the gaseous exhaust. With HONO/NO ratio we can derive a lower limit of the conversion efficiency (εS) of fuel sulfur into H2SO4 of 2.9%. In addition to individual contrails and aircraft plumes, regional stratospheric NO enhancements were detected in the lowest stratosphere. Simulations show that aviation NO emissions could have contributed by more than 40% to the observed NO levels. Besides contrails, also cirrus clouds and a volcanic aerosol layer were measured during the CONCERT campaign. The observations serve to investigate the chemical processing of trace gases on contrails and and help to better quantify the climate impact from contrails.

Citation: Voigt, C., Schumann, U., Jurkat, T., Schäuble, D., Schlager, H., Petzold, A., Gayet, J.-F., Krämer, M., Schneider, J., Borrmann, S., Schmale, J., Jessberger, P., Hamburger, T., Lichtenstern, M., Scheibe, M., Gourbeyre, C., Meyer, J., Kübbeler, M., Frey, W., Eichler, H., Butler, T., Lawrence, M. G., Holzäpfel, F., Arnold, F., Wendisch, M., Döpelheuer, A., Gottschaldt, K., Baumann, R., Zöger, M., Sölch, I., Rautenhaus, M., and Dörnbrack, A.: In-situ observations of young contrails – overview and selected results from the CONCERT campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10, 12713-12763, doi:10.5194/acpd-10-12713-2010, 2010.
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